Zürich, Zentralbibliothek, Ms. Heidenheim 136
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Dr. Justine Isserles, chercheure associée, Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes-Saprat (Paris), 2019.

Manuscript title: Siddur
Place of origin: Italy
Date of origin: ‎2nd half 15th century‎
Support: Parchment of medium quality. Hair and flesh sides distinguishable. The first 2 quires (ff. 1-16) are a palimpsest of an erased Latin manuscript, in hardly legible red and brown script (e.g. ff. 5v-6r). Paper folio inserted between ff. 70v and 71r.‎
Extent: IV + 152 + IV
Format: 98-100 x 70-76 mm
Foliation: Grey pencil foliation in Arabic numerals, from right to left in the upper left corner of each folio.‎
Collation: 2 quaternions I-II (1r-16v); 2 quinions III-IV (17r-36v); 1 quaternion V (37r-44v) ; 1 senion VI (45r-56v) ; 1 septenion VII (57r-70v) ; 1 unnumbered paper folio; 1 senion VIII (71r-82v); 1 folio (83r/v); 1 octonion IX (84r-99v); 2 septenions X-XI (100r-127v); 1 nonion XII (128r-145v); 1 quaternion (146r-153v).‎ No catchwords.‎
Condition: Well preserved manuscript, except for some humidity stains throughout the manuscript and a hole (f. 99). The margins of the manuscript are cropped, cutting some text on several folios, particularly in the bottom margin (e.g. f. 141r).‎
Page layout: Most textual units have a full-page layout, except for the layouts found on folios 130v to 140v, which consist of 2 columns of text.‎
ff. 1r to 16v contain 2 different rulings. Traces of brown ink horizontal lines (e.g. f. 6v) as well as lead pencil ruling (e.g. f. 13v).‎
ff. 17r to 145r are ruled in lead pencil.
The justification varies depending on the quires (ff. 16v, 36v, 70v, 130v and 141r are all the last pages of a quire) and textual units:‎
  • ff. 1r-16v: 2 + 2 columns of text. 12 traced lines for 19-20 written lines (e.g. ff. 7v-8r).‎
  • ff. 17r-36v: 2 + 1 columns of text. 20 written lines (traced lines not visible) (e.g. f. 36r).‎
  • ff. 37r-70v: 1 + 1 columns of text. 20 traced lines for 20 written lines (e.g. f. 44r)‎
  • ff. 71r-130r: 1+ 1 columns of text (e.g. ff. 126v-127r) and 24 traced lines for 24 written lines (e.g. ff. 109v-110r).‎
  • ff. 130v-141r: 2 kinds of justification: 1 + 1 + 2 + 2 + 2 columns of text (e.g. f. 133r) and 1 + 2 + 1 columns of text (e.g. f. 135r). There are between 24 and 26 written lines (traced lines not visible).‎
  • ff. 141v-152v: no visible ruling.‎
The end of lines is respected by elongation and compression of letters, graphic signs and letters overlapping into left lateral margin.‎‎
Writing and hands: The scripts in this manuscript are all of Italian origin. There are 4 different scribes and 5 textual units in this manuscript. Scribe 3 wrote textual units 3 (ff. 71r-130r) and 4 (130v-141r).‎ Both scribes 1 and 3 bear the name ‎יוסף‎ (Joseph) but are not the same person (e.g. the bookhand script by scribe 1 on folios 56r/v is not the same as the bookhand script by scribe 3 on folio 71r in unit 3 or on folio 132r in unit 4).‎
  • Textual unit 1: ff. 1r-69r: scribe 1, small and medium module square script and small module bookhand script. The scribe is identified as ‎יוסף‎ (Joseph) on several folios (e.g. ff. 16v, 27v, 31r). The vocalization was done in a light brown ink (ff. 1r-37r; 65v-69r) and then a dark brown ink (ff. 37v-62v) by a punctuator‏ ‏‎(naqdan) identified on f. 10r as ‎שמואל‎ (Shmuel).
  • Textual unit 2: ff. 69r-70v: scribe 2, small module bookhand vocalized script.‎
  • Textual unit 3: ff. 71r-130r: scribe 3, very small module bookhand script (vocalized f. 71r). The scribe has identified himself on folios 101r, 118r and 130r as ‎יוסף‎ (Joseph) (different from scribe 1).‎
  • Textual unit 4: ff. 130v- 141r: scribe 3, very small module bookhand script (the scribe is identified as ‎יוסף‎ (Joseph) on several folios 131r).‎
  • Textual unit 5: ff. 141v-145r: scribe 4: very small module bookhand script.‎
  • f. 10r: unidentified doodle in upper margin.
  • f. 145r: text ending inserted into two triangular shapes facing each other, called cul-de-lampes.
Additions: Various hands have written the following texts at the end of the manuscript:‎
  • f. 141r: (light brown ink, same as vertical vocalized owner’s note on folio 145r) bottom right and complete left column: list of the 12 months of the year in Judeo-French, as well as the 7 planets, the 12 signs of the zodiac and the 4 cardinal points in Hebrew and Latin in Hebrew characters.‎
  • ff. 146r/v: large square vocalized script: Al ha-Nissim addition said during the Birkat ha-Mazon of Ḥanukkah. Lacunary‎.
  • ff. 147r-148v and 149r-151v: various liturgical texts in small and very small module bookhand scripts, including Psalm 119 on folio 149r/v. At the bottom of folio 151v, small paragraph (partially legible) on the Jewish liturgical calendar, relating the number of days between the festivals.‎
  • f. 152r: medium module bookhand script, rules regarding liturgy
  • f. 152v: very small bookhand script, piyyut (Davidson n° 6153).
Binding: Brown leather binding on cardboard of the 19th century (104 x 84 mm). The boards have gold tooled frame. The spine bears a blind stamped scroll above 2 gold tooled curved lines surrounding a gold tooled title in the following Hebrew lettering: ‎כידר רומה‎ and the number ‘2’ below, gold tooled as well. The title is misspelled and should have been perhaps ‎סידור רומה‎, standing for a Siddur according to the Roman rite. Remnants of gold leaf covering on the edges and fore edge of the manuscript.‎
This small prayer ritual encloses a siddur according to the Roman rite, produced in Italy during the 2nd half of the 15th century, identified thanks to its Italian square and bookhand scripts (J. Prijs erroneously recognized the manuscript as a mahzor according to the French rite, see catalogue pp. 140-143). Moreover, the first two quires (ff. 1-16) are made from a palimpsest of Hebrew script superimposed on an erased Latin manuscript, of which only a residue of script in rubricated and brown ink remain (e.g. ff. 5v-6r). This manuscript can be divided into three portions relative to liturgy, ceremonies and a last miscellaneous section.
This small format siddur for personal use, partially copied by a compiler named Joseph Foà (ff. 71r-130r and 130v-141r), can be characterized as a vademecum for Jewish religious and communal life. It possesses the singularity of omitting all prayers (tefillot), not only for daily and Sabbath liturgy, but also for the festivals of the liturgical year. Instead, there are only blessings for some of the festivals (omitting anything regarding Yom Kippur and Shavuot or the fast of Tisha be-Av), such as the blowing of the Shofar on Rosh ha-Shanah, before and after the reading of the Megillat Esther on Purim, for lighting the Ḥanukkiah on Ḥanukkah. These blessings are followed by instructions on burning the ḥamets before Pessaḥ and its blessing, succeeded by the Mishnah Tractate Avot, where one of the six chapters is read every Sabbath during the seven-week interval between the festivals of Pessaḥ and Shavuot. Furthermore, although the beginning of the manuscript is lacunary, it begins with some liturgical poems (piyyutim) for the festivals of Sukkot (Hoshanot) and for Simḥat Torah.
Subsequent to this liturgical section focusing on the festivals, a second portion of the manuscript concentrates on the ceremonies relative to Jewish communal life. There is a selection of piyyutim recited by the bridegroom before and after he is called to the Torah, as well as the seven blessings (Sheva Berakhot) recited at the wedding ceremony and six more times after a couple is married, during a seven-day period. Additionally, instructions and blessings are found on the Eruv (ritual enclosure that some communities construct in their neighbourhoods as a way to permit Jewish residents or visitors to carry on sabbaths and festivals), as well as instructions and blessings for Avelim (mourners), ending with viduyim (confessions) for men and women. Appropriately following, are blessings for sick men and women, including for women in childbirth, concluding with a piyyut recited when seeing a king. After another confessional text attributed to R. Moshe ha-Darshan (11th c., Narbonne) and a selection of seventy liturgical verses to be recited, this section ends with the instructions and blessings for a Brit Milah (circumcision) ceremony, followed by all 150 Psalms.
The third and last part of this manuscript encloses a miscellaneous selection of texts, including a polemical text against the Christian interpretation of Psalms, the Al ha-Nissim addition recited during the Birkat ha-Mazon of Ḥanukkah, various liturgical texts including Psalm 119, a small paragraph on the Jewish liturgical calendar, relating the number of days between the festivals, all of which concludes with some rules regarding the liturgy and a piyyut (Davidson n° 6153). However, introducing this last miscellaneous section of the manuscript, are two remarkable texts. The first one is laid out in two columns between folios 130v and 141r and consists of a list of the names of books and incipits of chapters of all 24 Books of the Bible, with the Hebrew and Latin names, the latter being spelled in Hebrew characters. Noteworthy to observe is the non-canonical order of the biblical books, beginning after the Book of Joshua, as well as the omission of the Books of Hosea and Habakkuk. Furthermore, no Latin names in Hebrew characters were given for the Books of Samuel, Kings, Ruth, Esther, Daniel, Ezra and Nehemiah. Lastly, there is a mention of the Book of Tobit (f. 138v), included in the Old Testament according to the Catholic canon and the Scroll of Antiochus (Megillat ha-Ḥashmonaim) (f. 141r), which was read in synagogues during the celebration of Ḥanukkah according to the Italian rite during the Middle Ages, reported as a custom by Isaiah of Trani (c.1180-1250) in his Tosafot on Sukkah 44b (see Lemberg edition, 1868, p. 31b).
The main interest of this list lies within the spelling of the names of these Books in Latin in Hebrew characters (see Latin Vulgate), which give clear evidence to their oral transmission (J. Isserles, 2019). While several are faithfully transcribed in Latin, such as: Numeri (‎נומיירי‎), Jeremias (‎גירימיאש‎), Joel (‎גואל‎), Amos (‎אמוש‎), Abdias (‎אבדיאיש‎), Micheias (‎מׅיגֵיאַש‎), Sofonias (‎שופוניאש‎), Zacharias (‎זכריאש‎) and Malachias (‎מלגיאש‎); other names have a slightly corrupted spelling, although they are still recognizable: Genesi (‎גיינישי‎) instead of Genesis; Esidus (‎אשידוש‎) instead of Esodus; Liviticus (‎ליויטיקוש‎) instead of Leviticus; Iesuei (‎ישואיי‎) instead of Josue; Jeseiqil (‎גישיקיל‎) instead of Ezechielis; Jugeis (‎גֵוגׅייש‎) instead of Judices ; Joneis (‎גונֶיש‎) instead of Jonas; Naum (‎נאום‎) instead of Nahum; Isaies (‎אׅישַאׅיאֵש‎) instead of Isaias; Iob (‎אׅיגוב‎) instead of Job; Perileipomeinon (‎פֽרׅילֵיפוֺמֵינוֺן‎) instead of Paralipomenon, for the Book of Chronicles. Next, are the five most singular and creative renderings of the biblical Books in the list, demonstrating an erroneous hearing and subsequent miscomprehension of the names: Terionomei (‎טירונומיאי‎) instead of Deuteronomium; Aqeldiasteic (‎אַקֽלדׅיאַשֽתֵיק‎), instead of Ecclesiastes; Qinti Quntqorum (‎קיאנטי קואנטקורום‎), instead of Canticum Canticorum; ending with another appellation all together for the Book of Proverbs, listed as Esempeleis (‎אֽׅישמֽפֵלייש‎), a vulgarized Latin version of the Latin exempla (‘examples’), instead of the traditional name Proverbia. Lastly, it appears that the name of the Book of Lamentations was not known by the compiler of this list, Joseph Foà, who wrote down the name Bakhot (‎בכות‎), meaning ‘tears’, as an alternative name of this Book in Hebrew.‎‎
The last text of interest here, also found on folio 141r (bottom right column and complete left column, light brown ink, same as vertical vocalized owner’s note on folio 145r), is a list of the 12 months of the year in Judeo-French, as well as the 7 planets, the 12 signs of the zodiac and the 4 cardinal points in Hebrew and Latin in Hebrew characters. Different variants of the names of the months in Judeo-French, as well as the names of the planets and zodiac signs in Latin in Hebrew characters have been edited and can be found in a recent study on the use of vernacular and Latin in calendrical, astrological and astronomical texts in Hebrew manuscripts of medieval Western Europe (J. Isserles, 2019). After comparison with the variants in the study, only the month of July, written as luan (‎לואן‎), along with the zodiac sign of Pisces, spelled Pissis (‎פׅישׅיש‎), differ here from the other examples in the study. Regarding the names of the planets, only five of them remain, since the last two, Venus (Veinus/‎ביינוש‎ /‎כוכב‎) and Moon (Luna/‎לונא‎/‎לבנה‎), were cropped off the bottom margin. Ending with the four cardinal points (‎ארבע רוחות‎) in Hebrew and Latin in Hebrew characters (which have not yet been studied), they have been transcribed, transliterated and translated hereafter in the order given in Ms Heid. 136: ‎ East: ‎מזרח‎, ‎אוריאיינש‎ (Oriens); West: ‎מערב‎, ‎אוקסידינש‎ (Occidiens); North: ‎צפון‎, ‎מירידיאיש‎ (Meiridies); South: ‎דרום‎, ‎שיפטינטריאו‎ (Seipteintrio). The Latin names of the last two cardinal points have been confused here, since the correct name for north is Septentriones in Latin and its southern counterpart is Meridies in Latin.
These last two texts on folios 130v-141r and 141r described above, bear witness to the interest of Jews in understanding the standard Latin and vernacular translations of certain words which were necessary to know, in order to communicate with the Christian surrounding environment on daily matters. These encounters could be focused on religious polemical discussions or debates with Gentiles (e.g. need to know the names of the Books of the Bible in Latin), on business transactions (e.g. need to know the names of the months in the vernacular for setting dates of transactions) or pertaining to medical astrology, the most popular type of medicine practised in the Middle Ages (e.g. need to know the names of the zodiac signs, planets and cardinal points, to understand a physician’s diagnostic).
  • Lacunary at the beginning of the volume.
  • ff. 1r-14v : Sukkot
    • (ff. 1r-14v) : Hoshanot (liturgical poems for the feast of Sukkot) starting with ‎כונן חתימת‎, which is not the beginning (the piyyut starts with ‎אל נערץ בסוד קדושים רבה‎ by Josef Abitur, see Davidson n° 3934 and Zunz, 180, n° 6). (J. Prijs has edited this text in his catalogue p. 350).‎
  • ff. 15r-24r : Simḥat Torah
    • (ff. 15r-24r) : Piyyutim for Simḥat Torah (See Davidson, n° 474 [and enlarged version in Mahzor Vitry, Hurwitz ed., p. 456]; 828, 2180, 8188, 8459, ‎ה‎ 1261, ‎א‎ 1453, 8446, 772, 3437) (piyyut on ff. 23r/v has been edited by J. Prijs in his catalogue, p. 351).‎
  • ff. 24v-25r : Rosh ha-Shanah
    • (ff. 24v-25r) : Blessings for the blowing of the Shofar (‎ברכות השופר‎) and order of the blowing of the Shofar.‎
  • ff. 25r-26r : Purim
    • (f. 25r) : Blessings before the reading of the Megillah (‎לקרוא מגילה יומר אילו ברכת קודם הקריאה‎).‎
    • (ff. 25r/v) : Blessings after the reading of the Megillah (‎לאחר הקריאה מברך אלו הברכות‎).‎
    • (ff. 25v-26r) : Piyyut after the reading of the Megillah (‎לקרוא מגילה‎, Davidson n° 242).‎
  • f. 26r : Ḥanukkah
    • (f. 26r) : Blessings for lighting the Ḥanukkiah on Ḥanukkah
  • f. 26v : Pessah
    • (f. 26v) : Instructions and blessings for the burning of the ḥamets before Pessaḥ (‎וזה הלכות ביעור חמץ‎)‎
  • ff. 27r-50r : Sayings of the Fathers, Mishna Tractate of the Pirqei Avot (‎אתחיל פרקי אבות‎)‎
  • ff. 50r-56r : Nissuin (Mariage)‎
    • (ff. 50r-51v) : Piyyut for the bridegroom (‎פיוט לחתן‎) (‎אייחא שם‎, Davidson n° 2730)‎
    • (ff. 52r/v) : Ofan (‎מלא כל הארץ‎, Davidson n° 1441)
    • (ff. 52v-53v) : Reshut read before the reading of the Torah by the bridegroom
    • (ff. 53v-54r) : Piyyut after the reading of the Torah for the bridegroom (‎יברך ה' חתן וכלה‎, Davidson n° 169)‎
    • (ff. 54r/v) : Piyyut (‎י-ה בשר‎, Davidson n° 806)‎
    • (ff. 54v-56r) : Order of the Sheva Berakhot after the marriage ceremony (with instructions) (‎והא לך סדר שבע ברכות‎)‎
  • ff. 56r/v : Eruv
    • (ff. 56r/v) : Instructions and blessings on the Eruv (‎הלכות עירובין‎) (Eruv: ritual enclosure that some communities construct in their neighborhoods as a way to permit Jewish residents or visitors to carry on sabbaths and festivals).‎
  • ff. 57r-63r : Avelim (mourning)‎
    • (ff. 57r/v) : Blessing and text on seeing Jewish gravestones (‎הראה קברי ישראל‎)‎
    • (ff. 57v-59r) : Prayer on standing in front of an open grave starting with ‎הצור תמים‎ to be repeated after the cantor.‎
    • (ff. 59r-60r) : Qaddish
    • (ff. 60r/v) : Instructions on being at the cemetery (‎הלכות לבית הקברות‎)‎
    • (ff. 60v-61r) : Addition for the Birkat ha-Mazon for mourners (‎וזה נוסח ברכת המזון‎)‎‎
    • (ff. 61r-62r) : Confession for a sick man or woman (‎וידוי לחולים לאיש ולאשה‎) (‎מודה אני לפניך‎, Davidson n° 734)‎
    • (ff. 62r-63r) : Other confession for a man or woman (‎וידוי אחר לזכר ולנקבה‎) (‎אנא י-ה אלקי ישראל חטאתי‎, Davidson n° 6153)
  • ff. 63r-64r : Sickness
    • (f. 63r) : Blessing for a sick man (‎ברכת לחולה‏‎)‎
    • (f. 63v) : Blessings for a‏ ‏‎(sick) woman (‎ברכת לאשה‎)‎
    • (ff. 63v-64r) : Blessings for a woman giving birth (‎לישבת על משבר‎)‎
  • ff. 64r-65r : When encountering a king
    • (ff. 64r-65r) : Blessing for a king (‎ברכה למלך‎)‎‏ ‏‎(‎ירצה צור‎, Davidson n° 3921, 1st part of piyyut) followed by the prayer starting with ‎מצלאין‎ (this text was edited by J. Prijs in his catalogue p. 351)‎
  • ff. 65r-69r : Miscellaneous
    • (ff. 65r-67r) : Confession by R. Moshe ha-Darshan (‎וידוי הרב ר' משה הדרשן‎)‎‏ ‏‎(‎אנא ...שבראתני‎ Davidson n° ‎א‎6112)‎
    • (ff. 67r-69r) : Seventy verses (‎שבעים פסוקים‎) (compare with Paris, Bibliothèque nationale, Ms hébreu 391, ff. 61r-62v, Ashkenazi manuscript, 14th c.)‎
  • ff. 69r-70v : Brit Milah (circumcision)‎
    • (ff. 69r-70v) : Instructions and blessings for circumcision (‎הלכות מילה‎)‎‏ ‏including the addition in the Birkat ha-Mazon after a meal celebrating the circumcision (‎ברכת המזון לסודה ברית מילה‎) (this text was edited by J. Prijs in his catalogue p. 352)‎
  • followed by a blank folio (not foliated)
  • ff. 71r-130r : Tehilim
    • (ff. 71r-130r) : Psalms 1 to 150 (vocalized)‎
    Colophon: Textual unit 3, f. 130r:‎ חזק ונתחזק הכתוב אני הצעיר יוסף פואה
    Translation:‎ Strength and will be strengthened, I wrote this the young Joseph Foà.
  • ff. 130v-152v : Miscellaneous
    • (ff. 130v-141r) : List of the names books and incipits of chapters of all 24 Books of the Bible, with the Hebrew and Latin names (see Latin Vulgate), the latter being spelled in Hebrew characters (there are no names spelled in Judeo-French as J. Prijs presumed in his catalogue p. 142).
      The text begins with the following incipit:
      אלו הן פרקי הגוים הנקראים קאפיטולייש של ארבעה ועשרים ספרים ושמות כל ספר וספר בלשונם והעתקתים מהספר שלהם שיוכל אדם להשיב להם תשובה מהרה על שאלותם שהם שואלים לנו בכל יום על אמונתינו ותורתנו הקדושה.‏
      Translation: Here are the chapters of the Gentiles which are called ‘Capitoleis’ of the twenty-four Books and the names of all the books and the names in their language and copied from all of their books, in order for one to answer them quickly on their questions that they ask us every day on our faith and our holy Torah.
      Here below are the names of the books in English, Hebrew and Latin in Hebrew characters (some of which are vocalized, see below). The transliteration of the Latin words is written in parentheses, according to the spelling (the Hebrew letter ‘ג’ is used for both the grapheme ‘ch’ and the letter ‘j’, e.g. Malachias/ מלגיאש), vocalization and order of the books found in Ms Heidenheim 136:
      • (f. 130v) : Genesis: ‎בראשית‎, ‎גיינישי‎ (Genesi)‎
      • (f. 131r) : Exodus: ‎שמות‎, ‎אשידוש‎ (Esidus)‎
      • (f. 131v) : Leviticus : ‎ויקרא‎, ‎ליויטיקוש‎ (Liviticus)‎
      • (f. 132r ) : Numbers : ‎במדבר‎, ‎נומיירי‎ (Numeri)‎
      • (f. 132r) : Deuteronomy : ‎דברים‎, ‎טירונומיאי‎ (Teironomei)‎
      • (f. 132v) : Joshua : ‎יהושע‎, ‎ישואיי‎ (Iesuei)‎
      • (f. 133r) : Jeremiah : ‎ירמיהו‎, ‎גירימיאש‎ (Jeremias)‎
      • (f. 133v) : Ezekiel : ‎יחזקאל‎, ‎גישיקיל‎ (Jeseiqil)‎
      • (f. 134v) : Joel : ‎יואל‎, ‎גואל‎ (Joel)‎
      • (f. 134v) : Amos : ‎עמוס‎, ‎אמוש‎ (Amos)
      • (f. 134v) : Obadiah : ‎עובדיה‎, ‎אבדיאיש‎ (Abdias)
      • (f. 134v) : Jonas : ‎יונה‎, ‎גונֶיש‎ (Joneis)
      • (f. 134v) : Micah : ‎מיכה‎, ‎מׅיגֵיאַש‎ (Micheias)
      • (f. 134v) : Nahum : ‎נחום‎, ‎‏ נאום‏‎(Naum)‎
      • (f. 134v) : Zephaniah : ‎צפניה‎, ‎שופוניאש‎ (Sofonias)‎
      • (f. 134v) : Haggai : ‎חגי‎, the name in Latin in Hebrew characters was cropped, since it was situated in the bottom margin of the page.‎
      • (f. 135r) : Juges : ‎שופטים‎, ‎גֵוגׅייש‎ (Jugeis)‎
      • (ff. 135r-136r) : There are no Latin names in Hebrew characters for the Books of Samuel I and II and Kings I and II.‎
      • (f. 136r) : Isaiah: ‎ישעיהו‎, ‎אׅישַאׅיאֵש‎ (Isaies)‎
      • (f. 137r) : Proverbs: ‎משלי‎,‎‏ אֽׅישמֽפֵלייש‎ (Esempeleis)
      • (f. 137r) : Job: ‎יוב‎, ‎אׅיגוב‎ (Iob)
      • (f. 137v) : Ecclesiastes: ‎קהלת‎, ‎אַקֽלדׅיאַשֽתֵיק‎ (Aqeldiasteic)‎
      • (f. 137v) : The names of the Book of Ruth and the Esther scroll are not given in Latin in Hebrew characters.‎
      • (f. 137v) : Songs of Songs: ‎שיר השירים‎, ‎קיאנטי קואנטקורום‎ (Qinti Quntqorum) (Canticum Canticorum)‎
      • (f. 138r) : Lamentations: ‎איכה‎, ‎בכות‎ (Bakhot). This is an exception in the list, since the word is in the Hebrew language and means ‘tears’ as in the ‘Book of Tears’ for the Book of Lamentations.‎
      • (f. 138r) : There are no Latin names in Hebrew characters for the Books of Daniel, Nehemiah and Ezra.‎
      • (f. 138v) : Mention that there is also the Book of Tobit (which was not included in the Canon of the Old Testament) (‎עוד יש להם ספר אחר הנקרא ספר טוביה‎)‎
      • (f. 138v) : Chronicles I and II: ‎דברי הימים‎, ‎פֽרׅילֵיפוֺמֵינוֺן‎ (Perileipomeinon)‎
      • (f. 139r) : Zechariah: ‎זכריה‎, ‎זכריאש‎ (Zakarias)‎
      • (f. 139r) : Malachi: ‎מלאכי‎, ‎מלגיאש‎ (Malachias)‎
      • (f. 139r) : There is no Latin name in Hebrew characters for the Book of Psalms
      • (f. 141r) : This list ends with a short historical chronology of some of Ancient Israel’s kings and ending with the following sentence:
        עד יש להם ספר אחר נקרא מקאבייש והוא מגילת לאנטויכס
        Translation: And there is another book called Maccabees and it is the scroll of Antoiches (sic. Antiochus).
        Below this is the explicit:‎ נשלמו פרקי הגוים מכל כ'ד' ספרים‎
        Translation: The chapters of the Gentiles of all the 24 books are finished.
        • (f. 141r) : (bottom right column and complete left column, light brown ink): list of the 12 months of the year in Judeo-French, as well as the 7 planets, the 12 signs of the zodiac and the 4 cardinal points in Hebrew and Latin in Hebrew characters.
      • (ff. 141v-145r) : Polemical text against the Christian interpretation of Psalms.‎
      • (f. 145v) : Blank page with owner’s notes
      • (ff. 146r/v) : Al ha-Nissim addition said during the Birkat ha-Mazon of Hanukkah (beginning missing)‎
      • (ff. 147r-148v) and 149r-151v : various liturgical texts including Psalm 119 on folio 149r/v. At the bottom of folio 151v, small paragraph (partially legible) on the Jewish liturgical calendar, relating the number of days between the festivals.‎
      • (f. 152r) : rules regarding liturgy
      • (f. 152v) : piyyut (Davidson n° 6153)‎
Provenance of the manuscript:
  • Previous to the acquisition of this manuscript by M. Heidenheim, nothing is known of its tribulations after its compilation by an Italian scribe named Joseph Foà in the 15th century, who most probably copied this Siddur for himself. Thanks to an owner’s note on folio 145v, the manuscript was still in the possession of the Foà family well into the 16th century. The Foà family are prominent members of Italian financial and commercial Jewry since the early 15th century and it is claimed that Abraham and his brother Amedeo Foà, who lived in Savigliano (Piedmont) at the turn of the 15th century, are considered as the founders of the Piedmontese Jewish community (R. Segre, vol. 2, pp. ix, xxxi). This same owner’s note mentions an Avraham Foà and the date of death 1522. Could this be the same person? Moreover, the Foà patronym became particularly famous by the mid-16th century, thanks to a relative named Tobia Foà, who established an important printing press in Sabbionetta in 1551. The family’s coat of arms shows the Shield of David over a palm tree flanked by two lions and was used as the distinctive printers' mark by successive members of the Foà family until the 19th century.
    f. 145r:
    • note in light brown ink in the centre of the page:
      […] ‎יוסף פואה הכתב ‎ (Joseph Foa wrote […] )
    • note in light brown ink in the same hand as the note above: Transcription:‎
      פרשה וירא
      יום עשר אם
      ימות שמונה
      בחדש מרחשון
      יום החמישי
      Translation:‎ Parshah Vayera, day ten and eight days of the month of Marḥeshvan, Thursday.‎ ‎(Thursday 18th Marḥeshvan)‎
    • vertical vocalized note along the lateral margin of the page in Judeo-French (undecipherable) ‎

    f. 145v: ‎ Dates of some Foà family members:‎
    נח נפשו בצרור החיים בו
    טיר נתאנל פואה‏ […]
    זקני ממר' אברהם פואה
    ביד' לחדש אלול בשנת
    […] […] ר'פ'ב' לפק' ת
    […] ונתחיל במזל טוב
    פח' פשוטה לחיים ולשלום
    לשנת רפג' לפק'‏‏ […]
    Rest his soul in the mold of life within him
    […] [?] Netanel Foà
    My grand-father Avraham Foà
    On the 14th of the month of Elul in the year
    282 according to the small count […]
    And we shall begin with a good sign […]
    In the 8th simple (year) for life and peace
    […] of the year 283 according to the small count.

    The year (5)282 = 1522 according to the Julian calendar ‎ The year (5)283 = 1523 according to the Julian calendar
  • f. 153r: Several undecipherable words in different scripts except for one note in dark brown ink:
    ‎ ‎ממני זה המחזור מינחם זיוירוש שי' ‏
    [The name reads ‎מינחם‎ (Meinaḥem), written as it sounds orally, not as it should be spelled (Menaḥem), not ‎פינחס‎ (Pinḥas) as J. Prijs thought].
    From me this Mahzor Menaḥem Zivirus may he live.‎‎
Acquisition of the manuscript: This manuscript was part of the collection of Moritz Heidenheim (1824-1898), a German Jewish scholar from Worms, who converted to Anglicanism. After several years studying in London, Heidenheim came to Zurich in 1864 and became an Anglican chaplain, where stayed until his death in 1898. In 1899, the collection of 211 Hebrew manuscripts (189 paper and 22 parchment manuscripts) and 2587 printed books entered the Zentralbibliothek in Zurich. This collection encompasses a wide variety of subjects, including biblical, exegetical, halakhic, liturgical, grammatical, lexicographical, kabbalistical, astronomical and apologetical literature, and conveys above all, the scholarly and scientific interests of this 19th century bibliophile (O. Franz-Klauser, 2006, pp.116, 241, 246).
Manuscript catalogues:
  • J. Prijs, Die hebraïschen Handschriften der Zentralbibliothek Zürich. Im Auftrag der Verwaltung der Zentralbibliothek beschrieben von Joseph Prijs (7 vols.), vol. 3, Nr. 109, pp. 204-209.‎
  • A. Schechter, Die hebraïschen Manuscripte der Zentralbibliothek zu Zürich (Abt. Heidenheim) von Abraham Schechter. Abgeschlossen am 15. September 1921, (Hebrew), pp.159-160.‎
Printed catalogues and secondary literature:‎
  • R. Bonfil (ed.), Mahzor Ke-Minhag Roma (Jerusalem: 2012).‎
  • I. Davidson, Thesaurus of Mediaeval Hebrew Poetry (New York: 1924-1933), 4 vols.‎
  • O. Franz-Klauser, Ein Leben zwischen Judentum und Christentum. Moritz Heidenheim (1824-1898) (Zurich: Chronos Verlag, 2008).‎
  • S. Hurwitz (ed.), Maḥzor Vitry le-Rabenu Simḥah (Hebrew) (Nuremberg, Bulka: 19232) (1st ed. Nuremberg: Bulka, 1893).‎
  • J. Isserles, « L’usage du vernaculaire et du latin au sein de textes calendaires, astrologiques et astronomiques dans les manuscrits hébreux d’Europe médiévale », in Fleur de Clergie. Mélanges en l'honneur de Jean-Yves Tilliette, Yasmina Foehr-Janssens, Olivier Collet and Jean-Claude Mühlethaler (eds.) (Geneva: Éditions Droz, 2019), pp. 933-959.‎
  • J. Prijs, Die hebräischen Handschriften in der Schweiz: Katalog der hebräischen Handschriften in den Schweizer öffentlichen Bibliotheken … redigiert auf Grund der Beschreibungen von Joseph Prijs (Basel, Benei Beraq: Sefer Verlag, 2018), pp. 140-143 (Nr. 163).‎
  • R. Segre, The Jews in Piedmont (Jerusalem: Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, 1986–1990), 3 vols.‎
  • L. Zunz, Literaturgeschichte der synagogalen Poesie (Berlin: Gerschel, 1865).‎