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Zürich, Braginsky Collection, B26
Parchment · 271 ff. · 18 x 12.2 cm · [Portugal, copied by a scribe named Moses or Aaron (?)] · [last quarter of the fifteenth century]
Pentateuch and Haftarot

e-codices · 09/21/2016, 13:36:31
This manuscript with the full text of the Pentateuch and haftarot (weekly readings from the Prophets) does not contain a colophon, although the scribe may have alluded to his name by marking the names Moses and Aaron when they appear on folio 58v. The volume’s semi-cursive Sephardic Hebrewscript and codicological features point toward a Sephardic origin of the second half of the fifteenth century. The biblical text and the partial Masoretic notes apparently do not contain any relevant irregularities; a more precise identification will have to depend, therefore, on the decoration.
The manuscript contains six illuminated initial word panels found at the beginning of each of the books of the Pentateuch, and at the heading of the haftarot. The letters of the initial words of the five books are executed in burnished gold leaf, outlined with black ink, set in a panel divided into four compartments of red and blue, decorated with filigree designs, framed in green. The word panel for the heading of the haftarot has detailed purple pen work only. Elaborate, mostly floral, purple pen flourishes, embellished with flowers and gold dots, fill some of the marginal spaces of the pages on which the initial word panels appear. Especially striking is an imaginative human face, which appears as part of the purple pen-work decoration on folio 52r.
Within the wide variety of illuminated manuscripts from medieval Spain and Portugal, the approximately thirty manuscripts from what is often called the Lisbon School are distinctive. These manuscripts, all produced in the last third of the fifteenth century, are characterized by their largely non-figurative decoration: filigree initial word panels, floral and abstract pen work in purple ink, and multicolored dots and flowers. It is likely that the Braginsky Pentateuch was the work of an artist who was active in the Lisbon School. This becomes especially clear when comparing its decoration to that of a number of manuscripts whose pages were reproduced in publications on the school by Gabrielle Sed-Rajna and Thérèse Metzger.

A Journey through Jewish Worlds. Highlights from the Braginsky collection of Hebrew manuscripts and printed books, hrsg. E. M. Cohen, S. L. Mintz, E. G. L. Schrijver, Amsterdam, 2009, p. 64.
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Online Since: 10/13/2016

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Zürich, Braginsky Collection, B28
Parchment · 43 ff. · 10.6 x 7.6 cm · Amsterdam, Baruch ben Schemaria · 1795
Sefirat ha-Omer ("Counting of the Omer") and other prayers

e-codices · 11/11/2014, 16:13:01
In der vorliegenden Handschrift werden die Tage der Omer-Zeit mit ihrer jeweiligen Ziffer in 49 kleinen Vierpass-Schildern benannt. Auf fol. 18r folgt die Darstellung der Menora, des siebenarmigen Leuchters, mit dem Text von Psalm 67 in Mikroschrift. Die sieben Verse des Psalms sind in die sieben Arme des Leuchters eingeschrieben. Zugleich korrespondieren die 49 Wörter des Psalms mit den 49 Tagen der Omer-Zählung und jedes Wort repräsentiert einen anderen Tag.
Baruch ben Schemaria aus Brest-Litovsk (heute Weissrussland) nannte sich als Schreiber dieser in Amsterdam verfertigten Handschrift am unteren Rand der Titelseite. Wir kennen noch vier weitere Werke von seiner Hand: zwei unsignierte Omer-Büchlein von 1794, eines im Israel Museum in Jerusalem (Sign. 180/29), das andere in Privatbesitz, ein signiertes drittes Omer-Büchlein von 1799 im Musée juif de Belgique in Brüssel und schliesslich ein signiertes Einzelblatt von 1794 mit einer Mikrografie des Hoheliedes in der Beinecke Library der Yale University in New Haven (Hebr. +93:11). Auf dem Titelblatt des Exemplars der Braginsky Collection ist auch der Name des Auftraggebers vermerkt, Aaron ben Abraham Prinz aus Alkmaar in den Niederlanden, der es gemeinsam mit seiner Frau Reina Kobrin dem Neffen Abraham ben Aaron Prinz zum Geschenk machte.
Manche Angaben auf der Titelseite wiederholt die kalligrafische Schmuckseite fol. 2r. Nach einer Blütezeit im Mittelalter wurde die mikrografische Schreibtechnik in der Neuzeit bevorzugt auf Hochzeitsverträgen und Schmuckblättern für besondere Gelegenheiten eingesetzt (Katalog Nr. 7, 23 und 54). Hier füllt die Figur des nur mit einem Lendenschurz bekleideten Samson in der Pose eines Atlanten die gesamte Seitenhöhe aus. Nach der rabbinischen Erzähltradition war Samson eine mit übermenschlichen Körperkräften ausgestattete Riesengestalt. Unklar ist jedoch der Zusam- menhang von Samson und dem Wort «Samson» im Chronogramm, das in der Kartusche unterhalb der Krone steht, mit der Omer-Zählung. Die Abkürzung des bekannten moralisierenden Bibelverses «[Gott] ist voller Güte für Israel [..., für alle Menschen, die reinen Herzens sind]» lautet Atlas (Psalm 93:1). Womöglich war dieser Vers die Inspirationsquelle für das Bild des Samson.

Aus: Schöne Seiten. Jüdische Schriftkultur aus der Braginsky Collection, Hrsg. von Emile Schrijver und Falk Wiesemann, Zürich 2011, S. 162.
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Online Since: 12/18/2014

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Zürich, Braginsky Collection, B28
Parchment · 43 ff. · 10.6 x 7.6 cm · Amsterdam, Baruch ben Schemaria · 1795
Sefirat ha-Omer ("Counting of the Omer") and other prayers

e-codices · 11/27/2014, 10:27:31
The Counting of the Omer takes place during the forty-nine days from the second day of Passover until the beginning of Shavuot. It marks the offering of the first sheaf (“omer” in Hebrew) of the new harvest on the second day of Passover in the Temple period. In the synagogue the counting is usually recited at the end of the evening prayer. In the eighteenth century special Omer calendars in many different designs were popular.
Barukh ben Shemariah of Brest-Litovsk, Lithuania, included his name in the information provided on the title page. He is known to have produced four other manuscripts in Amsterdam: two unsigned Omer booklets from 1794 (Jerusalem, Israel Museum, 180/29, and a private collection), another from 1799 (Brussels, Musée juif de Belgique), and a signed single-sheet micrographic Song of Songs dated 1794 (New Haven, Yale University, Beinecke Library, Heb. +93:11). The name of the patron of the Braginsky Collection manuscript, Aaron ben Abraham Prinz of Alkmaar (the Netherlands), appears on the title page. He and his wife, Reina Kobrin, purchased the manuscript together, and gave it to his nephew, Abraham ben Aaron Prinz, whom they raised.
Some of this information also appears on folio 2r, a page embellished with micrography, a technique popular during the Middle Ages, but uncommon in later Hebrew codices (cat. nos. 54 and 66). Filling the page, the biblical Samson depicted as a loinclothclad Atlas, carries a globe above his head. According to a midrash, Samson, whose body was gigantic, had superhuman strength. For reasons unknown, Samson is referred to in the chronogram at the end of the inscription under the crown at the lower left.
Forty-nine small quatrefoils, each with the number of the day being counted that night, are followed on folio 18r by the text of Psalms 67, penned in the shape of the menorah. The seven verses of the psalm are written on the seven branches of the candelabrum. The forty-nine words of the psalm correspond to the forty-nine days of the Omer; every day represents another word. One of the three large abbreviations of well-known ethical verses – “Atlas” (“‘[God] is good to Israel,’ selah”; Psalms 73:1) – was perhaps the inspiration for the image of Samson.

From: A Journey through Jewish Worlds. Highlights from the Braginsky collection of Hebrew manuscripts and printed books, hrsg. E. M. Cohen, S. L. Mintz, E. G. L. Schrijver, Amsterdam, 2009, S. 140.
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Online Since: 12/18/2014

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Zürich, Braginsky Collection, B45
Paper · 280 ff. · 21.5 x 15.5 cm · Hebron (The Land of Israel), Solomon Adeni · before 1611
Solomon Adeni, Melekhet Shelomo ("the commentaries on the Mishnah by Solomon")

e-codices · 01/28/2015, 10:04:43
The Mishnah, after the Bible, is the most fundamental pillar of Jewish tradition. It represents the Oral Torah in its primary formulation. It was the subject of many commentaries, few of which surpass in depth and breadth the work of Solomon Adeni.
Adeni (b. 1567) was four years old when he was taken by his parents from his native Yemen to the Land of Israel. He lived in Safed, Jerusalem, and ultimately settled in Hebron. Adeni studied with the Talmudist Rabbi Bezalel Ashkenazi and the mystic Rabbi Hayyim Vital. Adeni suffered many personal tragedies, living in abject poverty and earning only a meager living teaching small children.
Adeni labored on this Mishnah commentary for thirty years. He wrote it originally in the margins of the printed Mishnah edition he owned. The comments were so crowded that, after a while, the author had difficulty deciphering his own handwriting. A patron presented him with reams of paper to enable him to transcribe his notes into a coherent work. The manuscript on display here is one section of this book, which covers the first order of the Mishnah, Zera'im, which deals with blessings, prayers, and agriculture-related laws. Corrections, additions, and erasures by the author are clearly visible in the manuscript. Another part of the book, on the sixth order of the Mishnah, Tohorot, is dated 1611 (New York, The Library of The Jewish Theological Seminary, MS Rab 33).
Rabbi Solomon Adeni’s contributions to the study of the Mishnah are manifold. He endeavored to establish the correct text and vocalization of the Mishnah and preserved traditions concerning the text that otherwise would have been lost. He apparently had access to libraries of manuscripts of medieval rabbinic works in the Talmudic academies of Jerusalem, Safed, and Hebron, and incorporated excerpts from them into his commentary. Furthermore, he included exhaustive discussions of his own on many passages.
Far from European centers of Jewish learning, Adeni was able to create a work of lasting importance. Although not published until the end of the nineteenth century, the Melekhet Shelomo is found today in many standard editions of the Mishnah and is being studied diligently by new generations of students.

From: A Journey through Jewish Worlds. Highlights from the Braginsky collection of Hebrew manuscripts and printed books, hrsg. E. M. Cohen, S. L. Mintz, E. G. L. Schrijver, Amsterdam, 2009, S. 92.
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Online Since: 03/19/2015

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Zürich, Braginsky Collection, B49
Parchment · 197 ff. · 12.5 x 8.8 cm · [Italy] copied by Samson ben Elijah Halfan · [ca. 1500]
Siddur according to the Italian Rite (Nussah Roma)

e-codices · 09/21/2016, 13:50:20
The Roman rite, or Minhag Roma as it is generally known, is the oldest order of prayer outside the ancient lands of Israel and Babylonia. It retains many old Palestinian traditions. The definitive study of the Roman rite, summarizing more than one hundred years of scholarly research, notably by Samuel David Luzzatto (1800–1865) and Leopold Zunz (1794–1886), was published in 1966 by Ernst Daniel Goldschmidt (1895–1972). The Braginsky manuscript reflects some interesting textual variants and contains a number of readings that would gradually be replaced, such as the text she-lo asani goy, ([Blessed . . . ], who did not make me a non-Jew) in the morning benedictions; in the majority of later, sixteenth- and seventeenth-century, Roman-rite prayer books, this text reads she-asani yisra’el, ([Blessed . . . ], who made me an Israelite).
The manuscript was copied by Samson ben Elijah Halfan. The ornamentation includes many attractive initial word panels, decorated with geometric designs and floral pen work, usually in red and blue ink. The opening page is illuminated. On it the initial word Ribbon (Master [of all Worlds]) is set within a rectangular panel with red and blue filigree pen work and gold-leaf letters. Surrounding the page is a border filled with red, blue, and green flowers ornamented with gold pen work; gold-leaf dots embellish the border throughout. The inner margin is filled with a vertical arrangement of lush green leaves. An unidentified family emblem, which depicts a rampant lion, appears in the bottom border.
This is the second manuscript in the Braginsky Collection that was copied by a member of the Halfan family of scribes and scholars, whose ancestors were among a group of Jews expelled from France in 1394 and found refuge in Piedmont, in northern Italy (see cat. no. 18). In colophons of other manuscripts by the scribe Samson ben Elijah, he refers to himself as ha-Tzarfati, the Frenchman.

A Journey through Jewish Worlds. Highlights from the Braginsky collection of Hebrew manuscripts and printed books, hrsg. E. M. Cohen, S. L. Mintz, E. G. L. Schrijver, Amsterdam, 2009, p. 78.
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Online Since: 10/13/2016

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Zürich, Braginsky Collection, B52
Parchment · 20 ff. · 11.5 x 8 cm · Hamburg, Uri Fayvesh ben Isaac Segal · 1750
Seder Tikkun ha-Mohel ("Prayers for the circumsicion ceremony")

e-codices · 11/27/2014, 10:54:19
Uri Feiwesch ben Isaak Segal war im Rahmen der Produktion hebräischer illuminierter Handschriften des 18. Jahrhunderts ein markanter Vertreter der sogenannten «Hamburg-Altonaer Schule». In einer umfassenden Untersuchung von 1999 beschrieb die Kunsthistorikerin Iris Fishof insgesamt fünf signierte Manuskripte dieses Künstlers, auch dieses Beschneidungsbuch der Braginsky Collection. Sie zählte auch mindestens fünf weitere, jedoch nicht signierte Handschriften zu seinem Werk. Seither konnte Uri Feiweschs Œuvre noch um zwei signierte Handschriften erweitert werden: ein Beschneidungsbuch von 1756 aus einer Privatsammlung und ein ins Jahr 1757 datiertes Manuskript mit dem Text von Naphtali Herz Wesselys Chochmat Schelomo («Weisheit Salomons») in der Bibliotheca Rosenthaliana in Amsterdam (Hs. Ros. 543).
Die Titelseite der Braginsky-Handschrift enthält den Namen des Besitzers Joseph ben Samuel und zeigt ein noch nicht identifiziertes Wappen. Der daran angebrachte Elefanten-Orden ist der höchste Verdienstorden, den das dänische Königshaus zu vergeben hatte. Zwischen der Liturgie für die Beschneidungszeremonie und den Segenssprüchen (Birkat ha-mason) platzierte Uri Feiwesch einen Blumen- und Früchtekorb als Vignette. Unter den hervorgehobenen Initialwörtern sind zwei exquisit ausgemalt: auf fol. 3r we-charot («und schliesse [den Bund]») mit zierlichen Blattranken und Blüten und auf fol. 16v ha-rachaman («der Barmherzige») in Buchstaben, die wie plissierter Stoff aussehen und wie ornamentale Holzschnitt-Lettern geformt sind. Zwei Textillustrationen sind szenisch gestaltet. Fol. 10r zeigt eine Beschneidungszeremonie im Inneren einer Synagoge. Der Mohel, der die Beschneidung vornimmt, hat sein Beschneidungsmesser erhoben, während der Sandak (Pate) mit dem schlecht erkennbaren Säugling auf dem zweiplätzigen «Elias-Stuhl» sitzt. Der Prophet Elias, der kommen wird, um die Ankunft des Messias anzukündigen, wird bei der Beschneidungszeremonie als anwesend betrachtet. Fol. 18r illustriert auf originelle Weise den Segen über den Wein. Ein Kellermeister steht auf einer Terrasse mit Blick durch ein elegantes Gitter auf einen Laubenbogen und Bäume. Rechts vom Kellermeister befinden sich neun Weinfässer, links ein Tisch mit verkorkten Weinflaschen. Der Kellermeister selbst hält in der einen Hand eine Weinflasche und erhebt mit der anderen das Weinglas.

Aus: Schöne Seiten. Jüdische Schriftkultur aus der Braginsky Collection, Hrsg. von Emile Schrijver und Falk Wiesemann, Zürich 2011, S. 44.
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Zürich, Braginsky Collection, B52
Parchment · 20 ff. · 11.5 x 8 cm · Hamburg, Uri Fayvesh ben Isaac Segal · 1750
Seder Tikkun ha-Mohel ("Prayers for the circumsicion ceremony")

e-codices · 11/27/2014, 11:13:37
Uri Fayvesh ben Isaac Segal is an important representative of the eighteenth-century Hamburg/Altona school of Hebrew manuscript production. Five manuscripts by him were discussed in 1999 by Iris Fishof. She included this manuscript from the Braginsky Collection, to which she did not have access. Two more signed examples have since been identified: a circumcision manual from 1756 in a private collection and a manuscript of Naphtali Herz Wessely’s Hokhmat Shelomo (Wisdom of Solomon) from 1757 in the Bibliotheca Rosenthaliana in Amsterdam (Hs. Ros. 543). At minimum another five unsigned manuscripts may also be attributed to him.
Uri Fayvesh’s colorful manuscripts usually contain painted rather than drawn images. The Braginsky manuscript has a simple decorated title page with the name of an owner, Joseph ben Samuel, and an unidentified coat of arms. Between the liturgy for the circumcision ceremony and the Grace after Meals a basket with flowers is used as a space-filling device. There are two red and two more elaborate multicolored ornamental initial words. The first, ve-kharot on folio 3r, has the outlines of the letters filled with delicate floral designs, while the second, ha-Rahaman on folio 16v, has letters that were executed to look like pleated fabrics. These “pleated letters” were inspired by printed woodcut letters.
The first of two text illustrations, on folio 10r, depicts a circumcision in a synagogue. The mohel is raising the knife, while the sandak (the one who holds the infant) is sitting on the Chair of Elijah. It is hard to discern whether the infant is, in fact, on the sandak's knees, as the raised knife seems to suggest. The second text illustration, on folio 18r, is more original and illustrates the blessing over wine. A man, standing in a vineyard next to nine wine casks, holds a glass of wine in his right hand and a corked bottle in his left. Three more bottles are on a table to the right. This is not only instance in which Uri Fayvesh displays an interest in the production and consumption of wine. In a circumcision book by him from 1741, in the Klau Library of Hebrew Union College in Cincinnati (MS. 599), a nude infant is shown sitting on a wine cask.

From: A Journey through Jewish Worlds. Highlights from the Braginsky collection of Hebrew manuscripts and printed books, hrsg. E. M. Cohen, S. L. Mintz, E. G. L. Schrijver, Amsterdam, 2009, S. 130.
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Zürich, Braginsky Collection, B57
Paper · 223 ff. · 20.6 x 15 cm · Ungarisch Brod (Moravia) · between 1673 and 1683
Siddur according to the Sephardic rite (Nussah Sefarad)

e-codices · 09/21/2016, 13:56:54
Nach der Vertreibung der Juden von der iberischen Halbinsel entstand im 16. Jahrhundert in Safed in Obergaliläa ein neues Zentrum der kabbalistischen Strömungen. Den mystischen Gebeten wurde eine wichtige Rolle beigemessen: «Sowohl das Gebet der Gemeinde […] als auch das Gebet des Einzelnen können als Instrument für einen mystischen Aufschwung der Seele zu den Höhen der Gottheit dienen» (Gerschom Scholem). So entstanden tägliche Gebetbücher, die nicht nur die Standardgebete aufwiesen, sondern auch solche mystischen Inhalts. Als Verfasser dieser Gebetbücher gilt im Allgemeinen Isaak ben Salomon Luria (1534–1572). Sie werden deshalb «lurianische» Gebetbücher, im Hebräischen nach Isaak Lurias Beinamen Ari («Löwe») auch Siddur ha-Ari genannt, wobei ha-Ari zugleich ein Akronym seiner hebräischen Ehrenbezeichnung Ha-Elohi Rabbi Jizchak («Der göttliche Rabbi Isaak») ist.
Redaktionen des lurianischen Gebetbuchs stammen von Meir ben Juda Leib Poppers (um 1624–1662) und Chajjim ben Abraham Ha-Kohen (um 1585–1655). Das Manuskript der Braginsky Collection, das neben den Gebeten kabbalistische Kommentare und Kawwanot (mystische Konzentrationen) enthält, wurde ausserdem von Nathan Hannover, einem Schüler von Chajjim Ha-Kohen, redaktionell bearbeitet, möglicherweise aber auch von einem seiner Nachfolger. Nathan Hannover lebte und arbeitete ab 1673 in Broda (Ungarisch Brod, Uherský Brod in Mähren), bis er 1683 während des antihabsburgischen Aufstands der ungarischen Kuruzen einen gewaltsamen Tod erlitt. Das Manuskript dürfte im Jahrzehnt zwischen 1673 und 1683 angefertigt worden sein.
Den Anfang bildet eine unvollendete Titelseite. In ihrem bunten ornamentalen Rahmen findet sich die Inschrift «Samuel ha-Kohen, Vorsänger in Broda». Dabei kann es sich um den Kopisten oder den Auftraggeber handeln. Auf mehreren Seiten erscheinen Initialwörter, deren Buchstaben mit Silber oder in abwechselnden Farben ausgemalt sind.
Das Buch befand sich einst im Besitz der orthodoxen Amsterdamer Kaufmannsfamilie Lehren, aus der eine Reihe prominenter Philanthropen und Bibliophiler hervorgegangen ist. Durch Einheirat gelangte das Werk in die Sammlung von Naphtali Herz van Biema (1836–1901) und wurde nach dessen Tod versteigert.

Schöne Seiten. Jüdische Schriftkultur aus der Braginsky Collection, Hrsg. von Emile Schrijver und Falk Wiesemann, Zürich 2011, S. 114.
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Zürich, Braginsky Collection, B57
Paper · 223 ff. · 20.6 x 15 cm · Ungarisch Brod (Moravia) · between 1673 and 1683
Siddur according to the Sephardic rite (Nussah Sefarad)

e-codices · 09/21/2016, 14:02:09
In the kabbalistic school of Safed the mystical aspect of prayer, as “the vehicle of the soul’s mystical ascent to God” (see cat. no. 30), is of great importance. To this end special daily prayer books were composed; these contain not only the statutory prayers, but also prayers with mystical content. The authorship of these prayer books is generally attributed to Isaac ben Solomon Luria (1534–1572). The “Lurianic” prayer book is known as Siddur ha-Ari, the daily prayer book of the Ari. Ari literally means “lion,” but is also the acronym of Luria’s nickname: Ha-Elohi R. Yitzhak (The Divine Rabbi Isaac). In the Braginsky prayer book, kabbalistic commentaries and kavvanot (mystical intentions) were included (see cat. no. 30).
Luria’s prayer book went through redactions by Meir ben Judah Leib Poppers (ca. 1624–1662) and Hayyim ben Abraham Ha-Kohen (ca. 1585–1655). Shlomo Zucker, in a description kept with the manuscript, established that the text of the Braginsky manuscript underwent yet another redaction by a student of Hayyim Ha-Kohen, Nathan Nata Hannover (d. 1683), or by one of Nathan’s followers. Hannover lived and worked in Broda from circa 1673 until his violent death there at the hands of anti-Habsburg rebels, on 14 July 1683. It is likely that the manuscript was copied during Hannover’s stay in Broda.
The manuscript begins with an unfinished title page that contains a decorative floral border in red, yellow, and green, but without any text. It is signed “Samuel ha-Kohen, cantor in Broda,” who is either the copyist or perhaps the person for whom the book was written. Throughout the manuscript the scribe included initial words with letters in alternating colors, occasionally using silver paint.
The manuscript was part of the collection of Naphtali Herz van Biema (1836–1901), an Amsterdam collector, whose books were auctioned in 1904. As his wife was a member of the Amsterdam Lehren family, many of his books had previously belonged to members of that family of prominent orthodox philanthropists and bibliophiles.

A Journey through Jewish Worlds. Highlights from the Braginsky collection of Hebrew manuscripts and printed books, hrsg. E. M. Cohen, S. L. Mintz, E. G. L. Schrijver, Amsterdam, 2009, p. 100.
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Zürich, Braginsky Collection, B62
Parchment · 138 ff. · 12.2 x 9.5 cm · Amsterdam, copied by Meir Cohen Belinfante, decorated by Isaac Siprut · 1728
De Pinto Psalter (Sefer Tehillim)

e-codices · 09/21/2016, 14:33:46
In 1728 Meir Cohen Belinfante copied this decorated psalter for Aaron de Joseph de Pinto, member of a prominent Portuguese-Jewish family in Amsterdam (see cat no. 38). The manuscript was copied from a printed edition by the Amsterdam printer of Hebrew and Spanish books, David de Castro Tartas, who was active between 1662 and 1698. Although Tartas printed two editions of the Psalms, in 1670 and 1682, only the 1670 duodecimo edition contained the introduction to the cantillation of the Psalms by Solomon de Oliveyra that was included here as well.
At the end of the manuscript, there is a text by the corrector, Isaac Saruk, who praised the precision of the manuscript and wrote a poem in honor of the patron. The poem includes an acrostic of the name Aaron, as well as a highlighted section with the Hebrew name Pinto, as the syllables “pin” and “to” appear at the end and the beginning of two consecutive words.
The manuscript has a decorated title page, one illustrated initial word panel, and two devices that imitate printed ornamental elements. All decorations, including the title page, were executed in brown ink similar to that of the text ink. The illustrated title page is signed by its artist: “Is.[hack] Siprut fec.[it], 1727.” Depicted on this page are David, the psalmist, and Aaron, clearly a reference to the first name of the patron. The name of the patron’s father, Joseph, explains the choice of bottom scene, in which the biblical Joseph is portrayed, most probably before his parents and brothers, pointing to the sheaves and stars of his dreams (Genesis 37:1–11). Also included are the crowns of the Torah (commonly associated with Moses, who does not, however, appear here), of priesthood (Aaron), and of kingship (David), taken from the Talmudic Sayings of the Fathers, 4:17. Although copied when a school of manuscript decoration in central and northern Europe flourished in the eighteenth century, this psalter is not typical of the manuscripts it produced. The pen-work decoration in the De Pinto Psalter, instead, reflects an autonomous calligraphic tradition found in some Amsterdam Sephardic, often polemical, manuscripts in Spanish and Hebrew of the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, as does the monumental Sephardic square script.

A Journey through Jewish Worlds. Highlights from the Braginsky collection of Hebrew manuscripts and printed books, hrsg. E. M. Cohen, S. L. Mintz, E. G. L. Schrijver, Amsterdam, 2009, p. 118.
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Zürich, Braginsky Collection, B67
Parchment · 60 ff. · 14.2 x 9.5 cm · [Corfu] · [around 1720]
Harrison Miscellany

e-codices · 11/27/2014, 11:41:38
The most striking aspect of the Harrison Miscellany is its cycle of sixty full-page illustrations from the book of Genesis. Such cycles are otherwise unknown in post-medieval Hebrew manuscripts. The fine-quality illustrations, executed in gouache, are the work of a highly skilled artist, probably trained in Venice. Surrounded by a floral border, each miniature bears a Hebrew inscription, usually a biblical verse, identifying the scene. Facing each of the images are Hebrew prayers, poems, and sayings, unrelated to the illustration. The left-to-right sequence of the paintings indicates they were executed separately from the text, probably by a non-Jewish artist. An unidentified monogram, MC, appears in many of the scenes.
The text consists of prayers, blessings, and poems for a wedding ceremony, following the custom of the Jews of Corfu. Additional poems are by a variety of poets, some by writers of the Hebrew Golden Age in medieval Spain, others by local authors, including Rabbi Eliezer de Mordo. The de Mordos were a prominent Jewish family in Corfu whose members included physicians, rabbis, and community leaders. The family played an important role in the defense of Corfu, then under Venetian rule, against Ottoman invaders. At least two people by the name Eliezer de Mordo graduated as physicians at the university of Padua, in 1699 and 1765, respectively. It seems likely that Rabbi Eliezer de Mordo, whose poems appear in the Harrison Miscellany, is the physician who received his medical diploma in 1699.
Although the illustrations and the texts do not relate directly to one another, the depictions of the wedding scenes based on biblical stories, as well as the frequent representations of women, suggest that this extraordinary manuscript may have been commissioned as a bridal gift, perhaps from a member of the de Mordo family to his bride. Cecil Roth made this manuscript famous by including numerous re- productions of its biblical scenes in the Encyclopaedia Judaica, which he edited. The manuscript, named after its former owner, was identified previously as Italian, probably from the seventeenth century. Later research proved conclusively that it was written in Corfu in the first half of the eighteenth century.

From: A Journey through Jewish Worlds. Highlights from the Braginsky collection of Hebrew manuscripts and printed books, hrsg. E. M. Cohen, S. L. Mintz, E. G. L. Schrijver, Amsterdam, 2009, S. 108.
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Online Since: 12/18/2014

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Zürich, Braginsky Collection, B67
Parchment · 60 ff. · 14.2 x 9.5 cm · [Corfu] · [around 1720]
Harrison Miscellany

e-codices · 11/27/2014, 11:47:21
Ein Zyklus von 60 ganzseitigen Illustrationen zum Buch Genesis verleiht der Harrison-Mischhandschrift ihren einmaligen Stellenwert, denn Ähnliches ist aus nachmittelalterlichen hebräischen Handschriften nicht bekannt. Die hohe Qualität dieser in Gouache ausgeführten Bilder bezeugt die künstlerischen Fähigkeiten eines Illustrators, der möglicherweise in Venedig ausgebildet wurde. Die ganzseitigen Bilder sind jeweils mit erklärenden, vorwiegend Bibelversen entnommenen Inschriften versehen. Zwischen den Illustrationen und Texten besteht allerdings kein direkter Zusammenhang. Auf den meisten Bildseiten und zum Teil auch in den floralen Schmuckbordüren der Textseiten findet sich das Monogramm des Künstlers in verschiedenen Schreibweisen, das in der vollen Form wohl als «M. C. MF.» zu lesen ist. Die von hebräischen Büchern abweichende Anordnung der Buchseiten «von vorne nach hinten» lässt darauf schliessen, dass zunächst ein christlicher Künstler die Harrison Mischhandschrift illustrierte und die hebräischen Texte in einem zweiten Schritt eingetragen wurden.
Lange nahm man für diese nach einem früheren Besitzer benannte Handschrift eine italienische Herkunft an. Inzwischen wurde aber nachgewiesen, dass sie in der ersten Hälfte des 18. Jahrhunderts auf der Insel Korfu entstand. Sie enthält Gebete, Segenssprüche und Gedichte für die Hochzeitszeremonie nach den religiösen Gebräuchen der Juden in Korfu. Weitere Poeme schliessen sich an, einige stammen von Dichtern aus dem Goldenen Zeitalter der Juden im mittelalterlichen Spanien, andere von lokalen Autoren wie Elieser de Mordo. Bei der Verteidigung Korfus gegen die osmanischen Angriffe während der venezianischen Oberherrschaft spielte die Familie de Mordo eine nicht geringe Rolle. Bedeutende Ärzte, Rabbiner und Gemeindevorsteher gingen aus ihr hervor. Zwei Ärzte mit Namen Elieser de Mordo sind belegt, die an der Universität von Padua promovierten – der eine 1699, der andere 1765. Ersterer ist wahrscheinlich der Verfasser des Hochzeitspoems, das diese Handschrift enthält. Die Hochzeitsszenen ebenso wie die Frauendarstellungen basieren auf biblischen Geschichten. Wahrscheinlich ist diese Handschrift als Brautgeschenk eines Mitglieds der Familie de Mordo in Auftrag gegeben worden.

Aus: Schöne Seiten. Jüdische Schriftkultur aus der Braginsky Collection, Hrsg. von Emile Schrijver und Falk Wiesemann, Zürich 2011, S. 156-157.
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Zürich, Braginsky Collection, B93
Parchment · 15 ff. · 27.2 x 18.6 cm · [Catalonia?, copied by a scribe named Moses] · [second half of the 14th century (around 1391?)]
Astronomical and Astrological Miscellany

e-codices · 01/28/2015, 09:29:17
Die Rolle jüdischer Gelehrter bei der Vermittlung der Wissenschaften im Mittelalter wird im Allgemeinen als sehr bedeutsam eingeschätzt. Eine Reihe arabischer wissenschaftlicher Werke etwa lernte die christliche Welt aus hebräischen Übersetzungen kennen. Die vorliegende Handschrift wurde höchst wahrscheinlich vom selben Schreiber kopiert, der auch einen viel umfangreicheren Kodex ähnlichen Inhalts abschrieb, der sich einst im Besitz der Londoner Sassoon Collection und heute in der Schoenberg Collection der University of Pennsylvania (ljs 057) befindet. Im Pennsylvania Kodex trug der Schreiber seinen Namen mit Zierbuchstaben ein. Eine weitere Teilabschrift befindet sich in der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek in Wien (Cod. Hebr. 132).
Das Manuskript der Braginsky Collection enthält fünf Auszüge aus dem Philadelphia Kodex: (1) Tabellen der Mondbewegungen, verfasst von Jakob ben David ben Jomtow (Bonjorn), der wohl 1356 in die Dienste des Königs Pedro IV. von Aragon getreten war; (2-4) Astrologische Werke von Abraham Ibn Esra (1089–um 1164): ein Fragment von Reschit chochma («Anfang der Weisheit»), den grösseren Teil von Mischpete ha-massalot («Gesetze der Sternenbahnen») und den grösseren Teil von Sefer ha-olam («Buch der Welt»); (5) Sefer ha-miwcharim le-Batlamjus, das Almagest des Ptolemäus. Damit kann die Auffassung Tzvi Langermanns aus dem Jahr 1988 korrigiert werden, dieser Text sei ausschliesslich im Philadelphia Kodex überliefert.
Das hier gezeigte Fragment eines «Sternenkatalogs» mit der Berechnung für das Jahr 1391, im Philadelphia Kodex in voller Länge enthalten, gibt drei nahe zusammenstehende Sternenkonstel- lationen der klassischen Antike wieder. Auf fol. 15r ist es Orion, Ha-gibbor ba-te’omim («Held der Zwillinge»), auf fol. 15v sind es die Sternzeichen Ha-nahar («Fluss», Eridanus) und Ha-arnewet («Hase»). Die bildlichen Darstellungen basieren auf dem arabischen «Buch der Fixsterne», das der persische Astronom Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi im Jahre 964 verfasste. Es handelt sich dabei um den Versuch einer Synthese von Ptolemäus’ Almagest und tradiertem arabischen Wissen. Die mit goldener Farbe gesetzten Punkte zeigen die Sterne in ihren jeweiligen Konstellationen an.

Aus: Schöne Seiten. Jüdische Schriftkultur aus der Braginsky Collection, Hrsg. von Emile Schrijver und Falk Wiesemann, Zürich 2011, S. 120.
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Zürich, Braginsky Collection, B93
Parchment · 15 ff. · 27.2 x 18.6 cm · [Catalonia?, copied by a scribe named Moses] · [second half of the 14th century (around 1391?)]
Astronomical and Astrological Miscellany

e-codices · 02/19/2015, 17:11:13
Jewish scholars are generally assumed to have played an important role in the medieval transmission of science. It is in part through translations into Hebrew that the Christian world learned of medieval Arabic scientific works. This manuscript was most probably copied by the scribe of a much larger miscellany with similar content, which was once part of the Sassoon Collection of London (Sassoon 823; also see cat. no. 97). The name of the scribe of both manuscripts, Moses, is known because he emphasized it with decorations in the larger manuscript. The Sassoon manuscript is now part of the Schoenberg Collection at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia (ljs 057). Another copy of part of the codex is housed in the Österreichische Nationalbibliothek in Vienna (MS. Heb 132).
The Braginsky manuscript contains excerpts from a number of texts contained in the Philadelphia codex:
(1) Tables on lunar motion by Jacob ben David Bonjorn (14th century), who in 1356 may have entered the service of the King of Catalonia and Aragon, Pedro IV, "the Ceremonious."
(2–4) Astrological works of Abraham ibn Ezra (1089–ca. 1164): a fragment of Reshit Hokhmah (Beginning of Wisdom), the larger part of Mishpetei ha-Mazzalot (Judgments of the Constellations), and the larger part of Sefer ha-Olam (Book of the World).
(5) Sefer ha-Mivharim le-Batlamyus (Ptolemy’s Book of Elections, i.e. his Almagest). In 1988 Y. Tzvi Langermann, in an article on the Philadelphia codex, claimed in regard to the latter text that "to the best of my knowledge, this is an unicum," but the Braginsky manuscript contains the text as well.

The fragment of a "star catalogue" shown here, calculated for the epoch 1391, appears in full in the larger codex and represents three relatively close stellar constellations. On folio 15r Ha-Gibbor ba-Te’omim (the hero of twins) is Orion, while on folio 15v Ha-Nahar (river) is Eridanus, and Ha-Arnevet (hare) is Lepus. The imagery is based on the Arabic Book of Fixed Stars, written in 964 by the Persian astronomer Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi (903–986). It was an attempt at a synthesis of Ptolemy’s Almagest and Arabic tradition. The golden dots indicate the stars within each constellation.

From: A Journey through Jewish Worlds. Highlights from the Braginsky collection of Hebrew manuscripts and printed books, hrsg. E. M. Cohen, S. L. Mintz, E. G. L. Schrijver, Amsterdam, 2009, p. 40.
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Zürich, Braginsky Collection, B103
Paper · 128 ff. · 21 x 15 cm · [Yemen] · [before 1646]
Midrash Hemdat Yamim (Commentary "Pleasant Days", on the Pentateuch)

e-codices · 09/21/2016, 14:46:02
“Of him great deeds and wonders and miraculous and amazing acts are related that he did for Israel and against the mighty and cruel kings that tormented and did evil with Israel in his days, for in his days they exiled the Jews in San’a.” Reference is made here by the well-known traveler Jacob Saphir of Vilna (1822–1855) to the greatest of Yemenite Jewish poets, Shalom Shabazi. Little reliable information about Shabazi’s life is available. What is known comes from his own works, some 550 poems and a few other texts. Among these is his homiletical commentary on the Pentateuch, of which this Braginsky manuscript is an early example. Many legends about the national poet existed among the Jews of Yemen. During his lifetime the political situation for the Jews of Yemen was one of great turmoil, persecution, and messianic anticipation. Shabazi invested his poetry, written in a popular, relatively accessible style, with feelings of hope and redemption.
Shlomo Zucker, in an unpublished description kept with the manuscript, identified the Braginsky manuscript of Shabazi’s commentary as an autograph of the author on the basis of careful comparison with a number of signed manuscripts, notably two manuscripts in the National Library of Israel, a Mishneh Torah fragment (Heb. Ms. 8° 6570) and a ikhlal of 1677 (Yah. Heb. 152). The text of the manuscript, containing the commentary on Genesis 37–Deuteronomy 31, differs from other known versions of the commentary, some of them autographs as well. This indicates that Shabazi, like so many other Jewish authors, considered his commentary a work in progress rather than a final composition. During his lifetime he must have made copies of different versions of his work. The dating of the Braginsky manuscript is based on a statement by Shabazi in a later version of the commentary, published in Jerusalem in 1983 on the basis of a manuscript from 1672, in which he noted that he finished an earlier version of the commentary in 1646. The Braginsky volume, from which the beginning of Exodus 21 is shown here, may well be the earliest version of the commentary.

A Journey through Jewish Worlds. Highlights from the Braginsky collection of Hebrew manuscripts and printed books, hrsg. E. M. Cohen, S. L. Mintz, E. G. L. Schrijver, Amsterdam, 2009, p. 96.
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Zürich, Braginsky Collection, B104
Paper · 5 ff. · 16 x 10 cm · [Vilnius], Elijah ben Shlomo Zalman · [second half of the 18th century]
Elijah ben Solomon Zalman, Kitzur Hekhalot ha-Kudushah ("Abridgment of [the treatise on] the Holiness of Celestial Palaces")

e-codices · 01/28/2015, 10:09:04
Der Name Gaon von Wilna steht für eine der brillanten und zugleich im Ruf der Heiligkeit stehenden Figuren der jüdischen Religionsgeschichte von geradezu mythischer Dimension. Der Ehrentitel «Gaon» bedeutet «der hervorragende Toragelehrte». Im Rang gleich hinter Moses Maimonides stehend, verkörpert Rabbi Elija ben Salomon von Wilna (1720-1797) die höchste Stufe des religiösen Studiums und der Frömmigkeit im nachtalmudischen rabbinischen Judentum. Bereits zu seinen Lebzeiten als herausragender Gelehrter verehrt, zirkulierten bald nach seinem Tod ihm zugeschriebene Manuskripte, doch hatte er in Wahrheit nur wenig Schriftliches hinterlassen. Deshalb liess das rabbinische Gremium von Wilna erklären, alles, was unter dem Namen des Gaon publiziert würde, bedürfe einer Autorisierung. Tatsächlich sind heute nur vier Originalmanuskripte bekannt. Eines davon wird hier gezeigt. Zwei Autografen befinden sich in der Jerusalemer Nationalbibliothek, ein weiteres wurde in einer Biografie über Rabbi Elija reproduziert. Mit diesen Autografen stimmt die Braginsky-Handschrift bis zu den Abmessungen des Papiers vollkommen überein. Anmerkungen von der Hand des Gaon wurden in eine Amsterdamer Druckausgabe des Palästinischen Talmud (Seder sera’im) von 1701 aufgenommen.
Der Text des Braginsky-Manuskripts enthält Kommentare Rabbi Elijas zu einer Passage des Sohar, des klassischen Werks der jüdischen Mystik. Während der Gaon in erster Linie für seinen Beitrag zur talmudischen und rabbinischen Literatur berühmt ist, sind seine bedeutenden Studien zur Kabbala weniger bekannt. Die Kommentare der Braginsky-Handschrift erschienen im 19. Jahrhundert in gedruckter Form, wobei ausdrücklich betont wurde, dass die vorliegende eigenhändige Niederschrift (mi-guf ketaw jad kodscho) der Druckfassung als Vorlage gedient habe. Tatsächlich stimmen die Randbemerkungen und die Korrekturen im Braginsky-Manuskript mit diesem Druck exakt überein.

Aus: Schöne Seiten. Jüdische Schriftkultur aus der Braginsky Collection, Hrsg. von Emile Schrijver und Falk Wiesemann, Zürich 2011, S. 116.
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Zürich, Braginsky Collection, B104
Paper · 5 ff. · 16 x 10 cm · [Vilnius], Elijah ben Shlomo Zalman · [second half of the 18th century]
Elijah ben Solomon Zalman, Kitzur Hekhalot ha-Kudushah ("Abridgment of [the treatise on] the Holiness of Celestial Palaces")

e-codices · 01/28/2015, 10:09:50
The name of the Gaon of Vilna conjures up an almost mythical figure of brilliance and saintliness. After Maimonides, it is Rabbi Elijah ben Solomon of Vilna (1720–1797) who epitomizes the highest achievements in learning and piety in post-Talmudic rabbinic Judaism. A man of great fame in his own life time, he left few manuscripts behind. Shortly after his death, writings attributed to him began to circulate. The rabbinic court of Vilna found it necessary to issue a statement declaring that any work that was to be published under the name of the Gaon had to be authenticated by the court. Indeed, today only four manuscripts are known as being genuinely in the hand of the Gaon. The work displayed here is one of them. Two other leaves are treasures of the National Library in Jerusalem; a third is reproduced in a biography of Rabbi Elijah. In addition, his autograph notes appear throughout a printed edition of the Palestinian Talmud, Seder Zera’im, Amsterdam, 1701.
The text of this manuscript contains comments by the Vilna Gaon on a passage of the Zohar, the classic work of Jewish mysticism. The Gaon’s fame rests mainly on his contributions to Talmudic and rabbinic literature; it is less well known that he was also a great scholar of Kabbalah. The comments seen here were printed in the nineteenth century by one of the highly respected experts on the Gaon’s kabbalistic writings. In that publication, the beginning and end of the present text are clearly and explicitly marked as having been printed from an autograph manuscript (mi-guf ketav yad kodsho). Indeed, the marginal notes and the corrections in the Braginsky Collection copy appear exactly as in the printed edition, indicated by parentheses and square brackets. All other aspects of the manuscript, including even the dimensions of the paper, are identical with those of the other documented autographs.

From: A Journey through Jewish Worlds. Highlights from the Braginsky collection of Hebrew manuscripts and printed books, hrsg. E. M. Cohen, S. L. Mintz, E. G. L. Schrijver, Amsterdam, 2009, p. 136.
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Zürich, Braginsky Collection, B112
Paper · 339 ff. · 29.4 x 23 cm · Prague · 1806
Bezalel Ranschburg, Pithei Niddah ("Gates of Impurity")

e-codices · 01/28/2015, 10:11:37
Although Rabbi Bezalel Ranschburg (1762–1820) never served officially in a rabbinic position, he was still highly regarded as one of the leading rabbinic scholars of his age in Prague and beyond. Prague, a center of Jewish learning, was also the home of the famous Rabbi Ezekiel Landau, an older contemporary and friend of Ranschburg. The rabbinic learning of Ranschburg is manifest in his commentaries on two difficult Talmud tractates, Horayot and Niddah, the manuscript displayed here. In his introductions to these works, Ranschburg wrote that he chose them because of their difficulty and because they were not among the regular staples of the yeshivas. His glosses were printed on the pages of the standard Talmud editions; he was also the author of responsa and other commentaries, now lost. In addition, Ranschburg possessed a remarkable library of Hebrew books.
In order to be printed in the Kingdom of Austria in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, Hebrew books required the permission of the royal censor. The censor in Prague in Ranschburg’s time was Carolus Fischer (1755–1844), whose name appears on many books printed there. Fischer, of Christian birth, was extremely well-versed in Hebrew language and literature. He was an enlightened person who defended Talmudic and rabbinic writings against their Christian detractors. An extensive Hebrew correspondence, consisting of about fifty letters between him and Ranschburg, is extant. In the censorial approval of Ranschburg’s commentary to Horayot, Horah Gever (Prague, 1802), Fischer described Ranschburg as a rabbi well known to him and famous for his learning. Fischer’s signed approval in Latin (1815) appears in the present manuscript. For reasons unknown, however, this work was not printed at that time. It was first published from this manuscript in 1957.

From: A Journey through Jewish Worlds. Highlights from the Braginsky collection of Hebrew manuscripts and printed books, hrsg. E. M. Cohen, S. L. Mintz, E. G. L. Schrijver, Amsterdam, 2009, p. 144.
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Zürich, Braginsky Collection, B115
Parchment · 264 ff. · 22.5 x 15.5 cm · [Ashkenaz] · [14th–15th century]
Sefer Mitzvot Katan (Small Book of Commandments)

e-codices · 09/21/2016, 14:53:08
Isaak von Corbeil (gestorben 1280), möglicherweise wegen einer auffallenden Nase Ba’al ha-chotem («Herr Nase») genannt, ist der Autor des halachischen Werks Sefer mizwot katan (SeMaK). Die in Frankreich entstandene Kurzfassung der 613 biblischen Gebote fand auch in Deutschland bald Anerkennung und galt da in der Folge als massgebliches religionsgesetzliches Werk. Kommentare und Glossen wurden in den Handschriften des Sefer mizwot katan häufig als ästhetisch ansprechende und kalligrafisch phantasievolle Schriftbilder gestaltet. Da die Schreiber die Quellen dieser Zusätze nicht benannten, bleibt deren Autorschaft vielfach im Dunkeln.
Für die weite Verbreitung des Werks in Deutschland finden sich in der Braginsky Collection gleich drei Beispiele. Hier wird das jüngste gezeigt, versehen mit den Glossen von Moses von Zürich (Mitte des 14. Jahrhunderts). Handschriften mit Moses’ Glossen nennt die Fachwelt «Zürcher». Ob er und seine Schüler in den Pestpogromen von 1348/49 umgekommen sind oder nach Bern fliehen konnten, ist in der Forschung umstritten.

Schöne Seiten. Jüdische Schriftkultur aus der Braginsky Collection, Hrsg. von Emile Schrijver und Falk Wiesemann, Zürich 2011, S. 64.
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Zürich, Braginsky Collection, B115
Parchment · 264 ff. · 22.5 x 15.5 cm · [Ashkenaz] · [14th–15th century]
Sefer Mitzvot Katan (Small Book of Commandments)

e-codices · 09/21/2016, 14:57:25
Isaac of Corbeil (d. 1280), also known as Ba’al ha-Hotem, perhaps because of his prominent nose, authored the Sefer Mitzvot Katan (SeMaK), the Small Book of Commandments. He divided the 613 positive and negative biblical commandments, and a few additional rabbinic ones, into seven daily sections to be read sequentially and completed once a week. Rabbinic leaders in France instructed students to copy the work into their prayer books and recite the daily reading of the commandments instead of supplications or the book of Psalms.
The SeMaK quickly reached Germany where it was recognized as an authoritative halakhic work. Often comments and glosses in the form of rectangular shaped “windows” were added in the margins or in the text itself producing aesthetically pleasing and imaginative page layouts. By not identifying the source of these glosses, scribes frequently created difficulties in determining authorship of the commentaries.
The three manuscripts discussed here exemplify the complex diffusion of the SeMaK. The latest (BC 115) contains the glosses of Moses of Zurich, who lived in Zurich in the middle of the fourteenth century. There is disagreement whether he and his students died in the pogroms following the Black Death or if he escaped to Bern. Manuscripts containing Moses’ glosses are called the Zürcher.
The other two manuscripts (BC 240 and 182) originally formed one volume. Their scribe, Moses Winik, whose name is derived from Windecken, near Frankfurt am Main, lived in Cologne in the 1390s. Later he moved to Treviso, Italy, where he died in 1411. His tombstone indicates he was the head of a yeshiva. He corresponded with rabbinic contemporaries and engaged in mystical studies. A charm for the healing of burns is attributed to him.
Moses Winik copied the SeMaK and a prayer book together, as was customary. He also added a commentary, referred to as Gournish. Although several rabbinic works with this name are known, its etymology is undetermined.

A Journey through Jewish Worlds. Highlights from the Braginsky collection of Hebrew manuscripts and printed books, hrsg. E. M. Cohen, S. L. Mintz, E. G. L. Schrijver, Amsterdam, 2009, p. 46.
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