Select manuscript from this collection: B26  K76 K91  S58  67/80
Country of Location:
Country of Location
Switzerland
Location:
Location
Zürich
Library / Collection:
Library / Collection
Braginsky Collection
Shelfmark:
Shelfmark
K86
Manuscript Title:
Manuscript Title
Ketubah (כתובה), Essaouira, 25. Siwan 5658 (15 June 1898)
Caption:
Caption
Parchment · 1 f. · 62.2 x 50.8 cm · Essaouira · 1898
Language:
Language
Hebrew
Manuscript Summary:
Manuscript Summary
This ketubah was created in Essaouira by the artist David Nissim Elkaïm (see his initials in Latin letters at the lower left) documents the marriage between Solomon, son of Joshua, son of R. Abraham Makhluf ha-Levi Ben-Susan, and Freha, daughter of Makhluf, son of Masoud, son of Naphtali, grandson of Judah Afriat, both of whom were members of Sephardic families. Numerous characteristics refer to this heritage, such as the writing material (parchment), the status of women, the invocation of God to take revenge for the expulsion of the Jews from Spain, the European style of the decoration of the frame and the Latin monogram of the bride’s name. (flu)
DOI (Digital Object Identifier):
DOI (Digital Object Identifier
10.5076/e-codices-bc-k-0086 (http://dx.doi.org/10.5076/e-codices-bc-k-0086)
Permanent link:
Permanent link
http://e-codices.unifr.ch/en/list/one/bc/k-0086
IIIF Manifest URL:
IIIF Manifest URL
IIIF Drag-n-drop http://e-codices.unifr.ch/metadata/iiif/bc-k-0086/manifest.json
How to quote:
How to quote
Zürich, Braginsky Collection, K86: Ketubah (כתובה), Essaouira, 25. Siwan 5658 (15 June 1898) (http://e-codices.unifr.ch/en/list/one/bc/k-0086).
Online Since:
Online Since
12/14/2018
External resources:
External resources
Rights:
Rights
Images:
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e-codices · 12/09/2018, 12:49:14

Marokko war innerhalb der islamischen Welt von jeher das Zentrum der Herstellung illustrierter Ketubbot, aber die Flüchtlinge von der iberischen Halbinsel steigerten die Beliebtheit dieses Brauchs zweifellos. Die zugewanderten Sefardim legten jedoch grossen Wert darauf, sich von den einheimischen Juden abzuheben, so auch durch das äussere Erscheinungsbild ihrer Ketubbot, die immer auf Pergament geschrieben sind. Ihre Ketubbot heben zudem die Stellung der Frau hervor. Deren vornehme Herkunft wird durch das Auflisten einer Generationen zurückreichenden Vorfahrenreihe unterstrichen. Ausserdem wird Gott um Rache für die Vertreibung aus Spanien angerufen.
Die Ketubba der Braginsky Collection stammt aus der Hafenstadt Essaouria am Atlantik, die bis zur Unabhängigkeit Marokkos auch Mogador genannt wurde. Um den Handel in seinem Reich voranzubringen, förderte der König die Ansiedlung jüdischer Kaufleute und stattete sie mit zahlreichen Privilegien aus. In dem keineswegs orientalischen Rahmendekor dieser Ketubba widerspiegelt sich der enge Austausch der führenden sefardischen Familien mit der europäischen Kultur, die im klassizistischen Stil der vergoldeten Architekturelemente und der realistischen Wiedergabe von Blumen und Blattwerk zum Ausdruck kommt. in dieselbe Richtung weisen auch die lateinischen Monogramme der Braut (oben) und des Bräutigams (unten).
Der Künstler David Nissim Elkaïm signierte links unten ebenfalls mit seinen lateinischen Initialen „D. N. E.“. Von seiner Hand stammen zahlreiche weitere attraktive Ketubbot aus Essaouria. Von der europäischen Orientierung des Künstlers zeugt auch die Wiedergabe des menschlichen Antlitzes eines Cherubs unter dem Monogramm des Bräutigams.

Schöne Seiten. Jüdische Schriftkultur aus der Braginsky Collection, Hrsg. von Emile Schrijver und Falk Wiesemann, Zürich 2011, S. 216.

e-codices · 12/09/2018, 12:40:12

Morocco was one of the most important centers of ketubbah illustration in the lands of Islam. Although scant written evidence attests to the importance of this practice in late medieval documents, certainly the custom gained growing popularity following the Spanish Expulsion. Calling themselves megorashim (exiled), the Sephardim who settled in Morocco insisted on enhancing the physical appearance of their marriage contracts early on, and carefully drew distinctions between their contracts and those of the local Jews, known as toshavim (natives). Invari- ably written on pieces of parchment, the Moroccan Sephardic ketubbot emphasize the elevated personal status of Sephardic women. Moreover, these ketubbot often contain a lengthy list of the male ancestors of the bridal couple, showing their roots and status, and calling on God to take revenge for their exile.
The Braginsky Collection contract presents the art of the megorashim ketubbot of the coastal city of Essaouria (formerly known as Mogador), an impor- tant center of Sephardic activity at the time. The mercantile and cultural connections of the commu- nity with Europe are reflected in the elaborate, non-Islamic, decorative framework of the contract. Thus, familiar European designs such as gilt architec- tural elements and realistic flowers, reveal popular neoclassical origins. Moreover, in imitation of European status symbols, the first and last names of the bridal couple are alluded to in the intricate monogram designs appearing at center top and at bottom. Instead of using Hebrew letters, or even Arabic, they employed Latin letters. The top mono- gram, composed of the letters F R, apparently stand for the bride’s first name, Freha, while the R may allude to her European nickname (e.g., Renée). The four-letter monogram at the bottom, S L B F, obviously refers to the bridegroom: Solomon Levi Ben-Susan, with the addition of F for Freha.
The ketubbah was decorated by the talented poet and folk artist David Nissim Elkäim, who was known by members of his community as “Leonardo of the Jews.” Elkäim, whose Latin initials D.N.E. appear at the bottom left, is responsible for many of the attractive ketubbot from Essaouria. His European- influenced designs even feature partial human representations, as seen here in the face of the winged cherub beneath the monogram at the bottom.

A Journey through Jewish Worlds. Highlights from the Braginsky collection of Hebrew manuscripts and printed books, hrsg. E. M. Cohen, S. L. Mintz, E. G. L. Schrijver, Amsterdam, 2009, p. 216.

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Schöne Seiten. Jüdische Schriftkultur aus der Braginsky Collection, Hrsg. von Emile Schrijver und Falk Wiesemann, Zürich 2011, S. 216.

A Journey through Jewish Worlds. Highlights from the Braginsky collection of Hebrew manuscripts and printed books, hrsg. E. M. Cohen, S. L. Mintz, E. G. L. Schrijver, Amsterdam, 2009, p. 216.

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