Basel, Universitätsbibliothek, Cod. R IV 2
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Dr. Justine Isserles, chercheure associée, Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes-Saprat (Paris), 2019.

Titre du manuscrit: Astrological, philosophical and medical miscellany
Origine: Ashkenaz (north-west Germany)‎
Période: ‎15th century‎
Support: Paper and parchment.‎ Each quire is composed of an outer and central bifolium of parchment inserted with 4 or 5 bifolia of paper.
  • Watermarked paper: ff. 3-4, 14, 38: seven petaled flower (Briquet, 14759); ff. 7-8, 16, 19, 21, 37, 45, 46: horned ox head with round eyes; ff. 30, 33: grape (Briquet 12996).
  • The parchment is of medium to good quality. Hair and flesh sides not distinguishable.
Volume: ‎48 ff.‎
Format: 215-222 x 155 mm
Numérotation des pages: Modern foliation in Arabic numerals in grey pencil from 1 to 48 going from right to left and located in the top left-hand corner of each folio. ‎
Composition des cahiers: Quires:‎ There are 4 quires composing this manuscript; 2 senions and 2 septenions.‎ I senion (1r-10v)1; II septenion (11r-24v) ; III senion (25r-34v)2 ; IV septenion (35r-48v).‎ ‎
  • 1: 2 pairs of stubs of a bifolium between ff. 5v-6r.‎
  • 2: 2 stubs of a bifolium between ff. 29v-30r.‎
Catchwords:‎ There are catchwords in quire III and IV: ff. 26v, 28v, 29v, 31v, 38v.‎
It seems that the last word of a page is repeated as the first word of the next page in some instances e.g. ff. 14v-15r; 16v-17r.‎
Etat: Incomplete manuscript preserved without a binding. The outer parchment folios are heavily stained and darkened, with folds, rips and holes. The outer rims of the parchment folios throughout the manuscript are darkened around the edges. The paper and parchment within the manuscript also has several humidity and various stains and one hole (f. 27), due to burning. The paper is also darkened around the edges with some rips. Folios 3 to 9 and 47 are partially missing text and folio 2 is almost a stub with a few incomplete lines of text. They have been restored with Japanese paper at an unknown date. Between folios 5v and 6r as well as 29v and 30r are the stubs of a parchment bifolium which was cut out. ‎
Mise en page: ‎1 + 1 columns of text. The end of lines is respected by elongation and compression of letters, as well as graphic fillers and the last letter of a word at the end of the line has been sometimes inserted into the left lateral margin.‎
  • Folio 11r, 21r, 25r/v: 2 + 1 columns of text.‎
  • Folio 22r/v-23r: 1 + 2 + columns of text.‎
  • Folios 24r/v: 16 columns of text.
Ruling:‎ There is ruling mainly for the justification grids throughout the manuscript, either in lead pencil, ink or both.‎
  • Folios 1r-10v: brown ink ruling.
  • Folios 11r: brown ink and lead pencil ruling.‎
  • Folios 11v-23r: lead pencil ruling.‎
  • Folios 24r/v: ink ruling (red and brown ink).‎
  • Folios 25r/v: brown ink and lead pencil ruling.
  • Folios 26r-33v: lead pencil ruling.
  • Folios 34r-48r: brown ink ruling.
There are no horizontal ruled lines in this manuscript. There are approximately between 35-43 written lines of text.
‎ Full page layout in the majority of the manuscript, except for the following folios:‎
  • Folios 6r, 24r/v: tabular layout.
  • Folio 6v: four circular diagrams.‎
  • Folios 5r, 41r/v: partially composed of a full-page layout and several square and polygonal grids.‎
  • Folio 22r: partially composed of a full-page layout and 2 columns of text.
  • Folio 22v-23r: 2 columns of text.‎
  • Folio 43r: Full-page layout on the top and bottom part of the page. The middle of the page consists of a main text partially surrounded by notes, within the justification boundary (not in the lateral margin).
Inner and outer indentations throughout the text.‎
Type d'écritures et copistes: Ashkenazi square and bookhand script throughout the manuscript. One scribe copied and compiled the texts in this miscellany, with slight variations in size and thickness of script, due to the writing instrument and the difference in absorption of the ink on the paper versus the parchment. The ink colour also varies from a light to dark brown throughout the manuscript.
‎ Small module bookhand and square script in dark brown ink. The notes in the margins are also by this scribe (except for the added note ff.18r/v in the bottom margin and in the text and in the margin near the bottom of the page, in a lighter brown ink, see under later additions).‎
  • Folio 1r: drawing of a standing dog in which is written the word ‎כלב‎, above which is an undulated scroll. Doodles of the letters aleph (‎א‎), he (‎ה‎) and dalet (‎ד‎). ‏
  • Folio 1v: several doodles of the letter aleph (‎א‎) and 2 manicules.‎
  • Folios 24r/v: rubrication of horizontally and vertically located headings in a table.‎
  • Folio 10r: Doodle of a tree with a bird on a branch in brown ink.‎
  • Folios 42r/v, 44v, 45r: rubrication of initial words and letters. ‎
  • Folio 48v: one manicule and a circle with a unidentified drawing inside it.
Ajouts: Very few later additions.‎
  • Folio 10r: Astrological text added on a blank page by 15th century hand in a medium module bookhand script.‎
  • Folio 18r/v: Added note in the bottom margin and in the text and in the margin near the bottom of the page, in a lighter brown ink
  • Folio 40v: Note in grey pencil probably by Joseph Prijs, differentiating the content of both texts on the page.
Reliure: No binding. The present shelfmark of the manuscript is written in grey pencil on folio 1v: R IV 2.
This miscellany, compiled in 15th century Ashkenaz, is a handbook chiefly composed of texts on astronomy, astrology, prognoses, popular medicine and medical-astrology, related to illnesses and bloodletting, to which are appended other texts on a variety of subjects: calendrical tables and treatises, ethical and liturgical poems, 13th century halakhic and scholastic philosophical material translated into Hebrew. Although it has been previously suggested that more than one scribe compiled this miscellany (Prijs, 2018, p. 54), after observation and verification of the scripts, it appears that only one scribe was responsible for copying this manuscript (see under scribes and scripts). Consequently, it is highly probable that the scribe copied Ms R IV 2 for his own use and was therefore a scholar/ rabbi - as seen by the interest in the halakhic, ethical, liturgical and scholastic philosophical material in the manuscript but very likely also a physician.
Indeed, this comprehensive handbook, replete with astrological prognoses (Leicht), talismanic astrological recipes (Weill-Parot) and popular medicine, interspersed with medical-astrology, including Middle High German and Latin glosses, was probably destined to a Jewish physician from late medieval Ashkenaz. Although being excluded from studying scholastic medicine in the universities, the compiler of Ms R IV 2 not only had access to medical knowledge of the popular type, including recipes and prognoses, but also to a few references made in the name of the great physicians of the ancient Greek medical heritage, transmitted via the Arabic and European writers of the 9th century onwards, through oral and written channels (Isserles, 2017, p. 28) (see above ff. 46r/v the mention of Hippocrates, Galen and Avicenna). Consequently, the compiler and presumed Jewish rabbi/scholar/physician ultimately copied all this information into a manual to be used as a tool for healing his patients and thus insured his good reputation (Visi, p. 18-20).
‎ Furthermore, in his recent well-documented piece of research on Jewish physicians in late medieval Ashkenaz, Visi argues that even without a formal university degree, non-Jewish physicians could practice medicine, but had to be examined by experts of the medical faculty of the local university, in order to be validated as lawful practitioners (Visi, p. 18). This, in turn inspired Jewish physicians, who were officially banned from Surgeons’ guilds, universities and often from treating Christian patients, to be as learned in medicine as they possibly could, bringing them the sought-after social recognition. Thanks to preserved sources, a small number of the more educated Jewish physicians from 14th and 15th century Ashkenaz were able to access German and Latin medical material (Visi, p. 5), which was conducive to the translating of medical works from Latin to German and Hebrew or writing their own medical works in these two latter languages. Among the few well-documented Jewish physicians, who were exceptions in Jewish medical society (Mentgen, 1995, pp. 579-591 (esp. pp. 586-591); Ziwes, 1994, pp. 201-204; Visi, pp. 6, 9-14), is Hesse ‘the Jew from Salms’ ( Ḥiskia ben David of Salins, located in the Franche-Comté, see Ziwes, 1994, p. 203 and n. 147) who served under Count Johann V of Sponheim (c. 1359-1437) in western Germany and was requested by the latter to compile a medical compendium in German, which resulted in influencing two Gentile doctors of the 15th c., namely Peter of Ulms and Johan of Seghen (Visi, p. 20). This work was then also translated into Hebrew for Jewish readers, accompanied by French glosses, which suggests that Hesse was undoubtedly of French origin (Visi, pp. 6-8). No less successful was Jewish physician Jacob of Landshut (Kirmeier, pp. 25-30) who, although in the service of Prince Stephan of Bavaria in 1368, was less interested in theoretical questions related to scholastic medical knowledge and focused more on elaborating medical recipes, some of which are preserved today in Latin and German sources (Visi, pp. 14, 19).
‎ Aside from these two exceptional cases and the handful of other prominent Jewish physicians from Ashkenaz known today who composed and/or translated medical texts, to most Jews in this trade, Visi (p. 19) acknowledges that “…there was less of a need to demonstrate medical competence in writing books…” than “…pursuing their career…” by learning the content of the books in their possession. This reveals that when materia medica was copied into manuscripts of various literary genres (see Isserles, 2017, p. 4), such as the miscellany Ms R IV 2 studied here, the subject matter was destined to be studied for personal knowledge rather than for the dissemination of it. Lastly, a small but significant discovery in the manuscript helps to pinpoint the city of Cologne or its surroundings, as a possible location for the production this miscellany. It is the presence of the date of the local feast day of St Severin, the Patron saint of Cologne, inserted into a list of Egyptian days on folio 46v and which is not considered one of the prohibited bloodletting days according to tradition (see detailed description below).‎
Lacunary at the beginning in the middle and at the end of the volume.
  • f. 1r : Blank page (outer parchment folio).
  • f. 2r : very small portion of unidentified text remaining.‎
  • ff. 3r-10r : Miscellaneous : Astrological, astronomical, calendrical texts, tables and diagrams and the order of the Passover Seder by the Maharam of Rothenburg:
    • (ff. 3r-5r) : Astrological/ astronomical text on the horoscope, ending with an unidentified grid.‎
    • (ff. 5v-8v) : Text on the Jewish calendar relative to the Keviyot or the seven leap years of 13 months as well as the postponement rules for the celebration of Rosh ha-Shana. A table and four circular diagrams, only two of which are completed, help illustrate the text.
    • (ff. 8v-9r) : Order of the Passover Seder by the R. Meir of Rothenburg (Maharam, 1215-1293) entitled with ‎זה סימן לסדר של פסח ממהרם זל'‏‎: This is a chapter for the Seder of Passover by the Maharam may his memory be blessed (Davidson 459 ‎ע‎). This text is attributed to the Maharam and is found at the end of the halakhot on Pessah in the Hagahot Maimuniot (first published in the Ed. Princeps of the Mishneh Torah, Constantinople: 1509), which is a commentary on the Mishneh Torah by Maimonides (1135-1204). Considered one of the most important sources of halakhic rulings from medieval France and Germany the Hagahot Maimuniot was compiled by a student of the Maharam, named Meir b. Judah ha-Kohen (end 13th c.), who recorded many of the latter’s teachings (see Urbach, pp. 434-436). See also on folio 8v, line 9 from the beginning if this text, the name of ‎דוד הלבלר‎ (David ha-Libelar or David Libellarius). (See Prijs, appendix p. 344, printed edition of the text on folios 8v-9r).‎
    • (ff. 9r/v) : Addition by the same scribe in a darker ink, also by the Maharam, with the following partial title ‎גם זה הלשון מצתי בספרו של אותו מאיר...‏‎: And this language I found in his book by the same Meir…‎
    • (f. 10r) : later addition on astrology, mentioning the difficult and good zodiac signs. Underneath the list of signs for the seven day of the week, where two complementary zodiac signs are accompanied by their angel and their governing planet.‎
    • (f. 10v) : blank page.‎
  • ff. 11r-19v : text on the 613 commandments: There is missing text between folios 11v and 12r. Text on the positive and negative commandments for the seven days of the week with the list of biblical pericopes mentioned in the lateral margins.‎‎
  • ff. 19v-23r : Series of ethical and liturgical poems:
    • (ff. 19v-22r) : Ethical poem by Hai Gaon (939-1038). The scribe erroneously attributed this poem to Saadia Gaon (882/892 – 942). See title on the last line of folio 19v: ‎מ'ו' [מכאן ואילך] מוסר רב סעדיה גאון ז'י'ל'‏‎. The first words of the poem on folio 20r begin with: ‎ירא ה' בני ראשית אמרי לכה קמה...‏‎ (see also Davidson 3694 ‎י‎).‎
    • (ff. 22r/v) : Liturgical poem in two columns by Isaac Crispin (Davidson 4191 ‎א‎)‎
    • (f. 23r) : Liturgical poem by Judah Halevi (1075-1141) (Davidson 905 ‎ע‎)‎
  • ff. 23v-34r : Astrological and Astronomical texts and treatises:‎
    • (f. 23v) : Probably some missing text between folios 23v-24r. Astrological text on the description of the signs of the zodiac in relation to the four elements and their influence on Man (see Prijs, appendix, p. 345, printed edition of text on folio 23v).‎
    • (ff. 24r/v) : Two tables with horoscopic prognostication.‎
    • (ff. 25r-30r) : Missing text between 29v and 30r: Extracts of works on astronomy and astrology by the famous 10th century Jewish scholar and physician from southern Italy Shabbetai Donnolo (c. 913-982). The passages in Ms R IV 2 are taken from the Sefer ha-Mazalot (also known as the Beraita de-Mazalot; see Sarfati; Sela, 2003, p. 3 and Leicht, pp. 82-84) which is a prognostication text related to the planets, beginning at the top of the folio with the words: ‎זה ספר המזלות לכל תולדותם‎. This text is followed by excerpts from the astrological work entitled Sefer Hakhmoni (see Mancuso and Steinschneider) also by Shabbetai Donnolo (f. 27r, lines 15-16: ‎בספר שבתי חכמוני‎, and f. 29r, line 34: ‎ספר השאילות כ'ו' בספר חכמוני‎).
  • ff. 30v-34r : Astronomical text.‎
  • f. 34v : blank page
  • ff. 35r-40v : Hebrew translations of two scholastic philosophers:‎
    • (ff. 35r-38r) : Hebrew translation of De forma resultante in speculo, taken from the work De Homine, tr. i., quaestio 21, art. 3, by Albertus Magnus (c.1193-1280) and translated by Judah ben Moses ben Daniel Romano (active in Rome between 1293 and 1330), philosopher and translator of a majority of scholastic philosophical works. This section of Magnus’ work was translated under the Hebrew title ‎מהצורה הנחקקת במראה‎ (see f. 35r, lines 1-2) (Wilke, p. 252 and for the Latin text, see Anzulewicz).
    • (ff. 38v-40v) : Hebrew translation of a section on Ideas taken from the work Summa Theologiae, prima pars, quaestio 15, art. 1 by Thomas of Aquinas (1225-1274) and translated by Judah ben Moses ben Daniel Romano (active in Rome between 1293 and 1330) under the Hebrew title ‎מאמר ההמושלים ‏‎ (see folio 38r, last two lines of page: ‎מאמר ההמושלים לאח טומס מאקוינו העתקת ר' יהודה בר משה בר דניאל‎) (Sermonetta, p. 246).‎
      ‎[For another Hebrew manuscript (15th c., Italy) which includes both the translations of these texts by Judah Romano, copied very close to each other in the manuscript, see e.g. Ms Parma 2629 (De Rossi, 315) (Richler, pp. 353), ff. 82r-84r: text of ‎מאמר ההמושלים ‏‎ by Thomas Aquinas and ff. 98v-101v: text of ‎במראה‎ ‎מהצורה הנחקקת‎ by Albertus Magnus. Moreover, for a comprehensive list of Hebrew manuscripts which include the Hebrew translations of Albertus Magnus and Thomas of Aquinas by Judah Romano, see C. Rigo, 1993 and 1995.]‎
  • ff. 41r-44v : Popular astrology, astral and talismanic recipes:‎
    • (ff. 41r-43r) : Astronomical prognostication text related to the seven planets.‎
    • (ff. 43v-44r) : Talismanic astrological and astronomical instructions and their outcome, related to making images of e.g. women, scorpions and lions (with or without feet) out of copper, lead or gold at an auspicious time of a particular planetary hour and/or when the sun is in a particular zodiac sign. The recipes on folio 44r are numbered 1 to 10. (see Schwartz, 2005, 2013).
  • ff. 44v-47r : Medical texts on regimen and bloodletting:
    • (f. 44v) Monthly regimen calendar according to Galen, starting with ‎אמר גלינוס הרופא‎ (Galen the physician said…), beginning with the month of March. It gives the name of the zodiac sign which also rules a part of the body, according to medical astrology (usually bloodletting was never done on a part of the body when a particular zodiac sign was ruling that part of the body e.g. when the Sun was in Aries during the month of March, letting blood from the head was forbidden, since Aries ruled the head, see Isserles, 2017). There is information on favourable moments during each month for bloodletting, for purges, for taking hot or cold baths, for eating foods or drinking beverages (see Isserles, 2014). The month names are written in Hebrew and in Old West Yiddish, except for four which were only written in Hebrew with a blank section left by the scribe for the names of the months for November/Kislev, December/Tevet, January/ (called ‘second Tevet here instead of Shevat) and February which he did not know in Old West Yiddish. Among the month names in Old West Yiddish, two refer to agricultural phenomena, e.g. June: Brakhmonet (‎בראכמונט‎) meaning ‘fallow month’ and July: Howmonet (‎הוומונט‎), meaning ‘hay month’, rather than according to the Roman calendar, such as the following names also used in this regimen calendar: March/Nissan is März (‎מרץ‎) ; April/Iyyar is April (‎אפריל‎);‎‏ ‏May/Sivan is Maiie (‎מעייא‎); August/Elul is Ouwest (‎אואשט‎) (see Isserles, 2019, p. 945). As for the names for the months of September/Tishri and October/Marḥeshvan, the scribe erroneously transcribed the misunderstood name of Ostina (‎אושטינא‎) for the month of September and confused the name Seteimbre (‎שטימברא‎) for the month of October (which is supposed to be September).‎
      Lastly, some herb names are also in written Latin in Hebrew characters e.g. spikenardi (‎שפיקנרדי‎) and salvia (‎זלבייא‎).‎
    • (ff. 45r/v) : Text on bloodletting for treating certain pains and illnesses. It mentions the location of veins from which to let blood when there is pain or an illness on a part of the body. Some names of the parts of the body are imparted in Latin, e.g. ha-estomaca (‎האסטומכא‎/‎האזטומכש‎), as well as conditions such as swollen eyes, possibly in Middle High German in Hebrew characters, i.e.: Augeschwar (‎ווגשווער‎) with Hebrew equivalent in text (‎העינים הנפוחות‎) or dropsy: Wassersucht (‎וושר זוכט‎) and the word fistul (‎פיסטל‎) in‏ ‏vulgarized Latin for fistula.‎
    • (ff. 46r/v) : Treatise on bloodletting related to humoral medicine for the treatment of various illnesses, e.g. fevers, starting with the words ‎אמר הרופא‎. This treatise makes reference to the following physicians Galen‏ ‏‎(‎גליינוס‎, e.g. f. 46r), Hippocrates (‎אפוקרט הרופא‎, e.g. line 5 from bottom f. 46r), Avicenna (‎אבן צינא‎, e.g. line 5 of f. 46v).‎
    • (ff. 46v-47r) : Bottom of page: List of the 24 Egyptian days identified by saint days, followed by a small paragraph at the top of folio 47r dealing with three cases of illness related to the liver.
      ‎ Particularly relevant to phlebotomy, Ms R IV 2 encloses a list of the 24 Egyptian days (f. 46v) in Hebrew, The Egyptian days or Dies egyptiaci were considered as dangerous days to let any blood and widely known in medieval Europe. They are part of a prognostication genre of fixed dates according to the solar year. Other than bloodletting, these days prohibit other actions such as travelling, taking medicinal draughts and eating certain foods. Although Egyptian days can be distinguished into three genres, comprising either, 3, 12 or 24 days per annum, the latter was the most common and located most commonly at the beginning and the end of each month of Julian calendars in Latin and in Hebrew characters (Nothaft and Isserles, 2014, pp. 15-32; Isserles, 2017, p. 5). However, the enumeration of the 24 Egyptian days has also been included in roster and lists, like in Ms R IV 2 and are displayed according to the Consuetudo bononiensis method, a counting style where the first days are counted from the beginning of the month and the second days are counted in retrograde, from the end of the month (Isserles, 2017, p. 9, note 28). Furthermore, each Egyptian day is identified by a saint day or feast day according to the Julian calendar, transliterated in Hebrew letters (see Nothaft and Isserles, pp. 15-21 and 31-32; Stern, pp. 236-265; Isserles, 2019, pp. 947-952).‎
  • ff. 47v-48v : Astrology‎‏ ‏and prognostication:‎
    • (ff. 47r/v) : Astrological prognostication text, indicating the zodiac sign, its related planet and its day of rising. Sometimes there is additional information on whether the sign is feminine or masculine; good or bad.‎
    • (f. 47v) : Prognosis when seeing a rainbow. The text is summarized as follows: if the rainbow is in the east or west or if there is a surplus of red rather than green in it, there will be famine, same as if there is black in it, there will also be famine, death and illness. However, if there is an equal part of red and green, there will be great abundance in the world.‎
    • (ff. 47v-48r) : prognostication text.‎
Provenance du manuscrit: One owner’s note in the manuscript.‎
Folio 1r: First line illegible.‎
Transcription:‎ ‏[...] הצעיר מתלמוד תלמודי הרפאים אני זוסמן בן יוסף‎ ‎הדר עתה ב...‏
Translation: ‎ ‎[…] The inexperienced of the Talmud [among the] students of the doctors I am Sussman ben Joseph presently living in ….‎
Underneath this entry is another illegible sentence with the name ‎יוסך‎ (Joseph) again.‎
  • Folio 23r: owner’s note with the words ‎סליק הספר‎ (completed book).‎
  • Folios 25r, 26r: some illegible owner’s notes in the bottom margin.‎
  • Folio 48v: Latin note in brown ink: plst homdis (?).‎
Manuscript catalogues:
  • J. Prijs, Die Handschriften der Universitätsbibliothek Basel. Die hebraïschen Handschriften. Katalog auf Grund der Beschreibungen von Joseph Prijs redigiert von Bernhard und David Prijs mit einem Anhang von Stephen G. Burnett und einem Beitrag von Thomas Willi (Basel: 1994), pp. 66-68; Manuscript catalogue, vol. 2, Nr. 39, pp. 151-161
Printed catalogues and secondary literature:‎
  • H. Anzulewicz, De forma resultante in speculo: eine textkritische une begriffsgeschichtliche Untersuchung. Vol.1: De forma resultante in speculo des Albertus Magnus: Handschriftliche Überlieferung, Literargeschichtliche und textkritische Untersuchung, Textedition, Übersetzung und Kommentar (Münster: Aschendorff, 1999).‎
  • C. M. Briquet, Les filigranes. Dictionnaire historique des marques du papier dès leur apparition vers 1282 jusqu’en 1600. A Facsimile of the 1907 Edition with Supplementary Material Contributed by a Number of Scholars, Allan Stevenson (ed.) (Amsterdam: The Paper Publications Society, 1968), 4 vol.‎
  • I. Davidson, Thesaurus of Mediaeval Hebrew Poetry (New York: 1924-1933), 4 vols.‎
  • S. Emanuel, “Did Rabbi Meir of Rothenburg Refuse to be Ransomed?”, Jewish Studies Quarterly, 24 (2017), pp. 23-38.‎
  • J. C. Frakes, Early Yiddish Texts 1100-1750: with Introduction and Commentary (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), pp. 52-61.‎
  • J. Isserles, “L’usage du vernaculaire et du latin au sein de textes calendaires, astrologiques et astronomiques dans les manuscrits hébreux d’Europe médiévale”, in Fleur de Clergie. Mélanges en l’honneur de Jean-Yves Tilliette, Olivier Collet, Yasmina Foehr-Janssens and Jean-Claude Mühlethaler (eds.) (Geneva: Droz, 2019), pp. 933-959.
  • J. Isserles, “Bloodletting and Medical Astrology in Hebrew Manuscripts from Medieval Western Europe”, Sudhoffs Archiv: Zeitschrift für Wissenschaftsgeschichte, vol. 101, 1 (2017), pp. 2-41.
  • J. Isserles, “Some Hygiene and Dietary Calendars in Hebrew Manuscripts from Medieval Ashkenaz”, in Time, Astronomy and Calendars in the Jewish Tradition, Charles Burnett and Sacha Stern (eds.) (Leiden: Brill, 2014), pp. 273-326.‎
  • M. M. Kellner, “The Place of Ethics in medieval Jewish Philosophy. The Case of Saadia Gaon”, Shofar, vol. 9, n°1, Special Issue: Jewish Ethics, 1990, pp. 32-47 (esp. p. 39, note 14).
  • J. Kirmeier, “Jakob von Landshut, ein jüdischer Arzt des 14. Jahrhunderts”, in (eds.) E. Brockhoff, M. Treml, J. Kirmeier, Geschichte und Kultur der Juden in Bayern (Munich: De Gruyter, 1988), pp. 25-30.
  • R. Leicht, Astrologumena Judaica. Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der astrologischen Literatur der Juden (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2006), pp. 82-84.‎
  • P. Mancuso, Shabbetai Donnolo’s Sefer Hakhmoni. Introduction, Critical Text, and Annotated English Translation (Leiden, Boston: Brill, 2010).‎
  • G. Mentgen, Studien zur Geschichte der Juden im mittelalterlichen Elsass (Hannover: Verlag Hahnsche Buchhandlung, 1995), pp. 579-591.
  • P. Nothaft and J. Isserles, « Calendars beyond Borders: Exchange of Calendrical Knowledge Between Jews and Christians in Medieval Western Europe (12th-15th c.) », Medieval Encounters, 20 (2014), pp. 1-37.‎
  • J. Prijs, Die hebräischen Handschriften in der Schweiz: Katalog der hebräischen Handschriften in den Schweizer öffentlichen Bibliotheken … redigiert auf Grund der Beschreibungen von Joseph Prijs (Basel, Benei Beraq: Sefer Verlag, 2018), pp. 52-54 (Nr. 51) and pp. 344-345 (Appendix).
  • B. Richler (ed.), Hebrew Manuscripts in the Biblioteca Palatina in Parma (Jerusalem: Jewish National and University Library, 2001), pp. 352-355.
  • C. Rigo, “Un antologia filosofica di Yehuda b. Mosheh Romano”, Italia: Studi e ricerche sulla cultura e sulla letteratura degli ebrei d’Italia, 10 (1993), pp. 73-104.‎
  • C. Rigo, “Yehudah b. Mosheh Romano traduttore degli Scolastici latini”, Henoch 17 (1995), pp. 141-170.
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