Cologny, Fondation Martin Bodmer, Cod. Bodmer 708
Titolo del codice: Kedārakalpa
Luogo di origine: Northern India, likely around Kedarnath, probable owner name given on the last folios: [X]prītālālacandra, author: unknown, scribe: unknown.
Datazione: Between 1700 and 1800, likely towards 1800.
Supporto materiale: Handmade paper.
Dimensioni: X + 82 + XIII ff.
Formato: 21 x 31 cm
Numerazione delle pagine: The pages do not have any foliation or pagination.
Condizione: Excellent. Manuscript is incomplete, but decorated with more than 60 miniatures, thereof 44 full page paintings.
Disposizione della pagina: 1 column per folio, approx. 15 lines per page
Tipo di scrittura e mani:
- Devanāgarī, close to modern form.
- The whole manuscript was written by a single person. It is unknown if the scribe and the painter were the same or different people. We assume that they were different people.
- Text is written in black ink, with red ink used for colophons, speakers, mantras and the numbers of verses.
- Each page has a frame with red and black lines and yellow colored.
- The manuscript has a large number of miniature paintings, depicting the story of pilgrimage of a group yogis to various Himalayan temples and sacred spots. The miniature paintings faithfully illustrate every step of that pilgrimage and depict all sacred places that these yogis visited.
Aggiunte: Corrections in the text: at marked instances the text was corrected with white color paint.
Legatura: The manuscript is made as a book. This binding is rather typical for the North-Indian manuscripts of the late half of the 18th century.
Lingua principale: Sanskrit, at times corrupted.
- This text is called Kedārakalpa, and it presents its own attribution in the following manner: it says that it is a part of the Nandīpurāṇa (also called, and evidently by scribal mistake, of the "Nandīkeśvarapurāṇa" in the colophons of the chapters 2-4.) In the text it is said to belong to "śiva-naṃdi-saṃvāde", i.e. to the dialogue taking place between god Śiva and Nandī, or a bull-headed yogi, ch. 2. This dialogue is characterized in chapters 11, 13-15 as "Īśvara-skanda-saṃvāda" (spelling corrected), as "Śambhu-skanda-saṃvāda" in chapters 19-25, 27, and as "Śiva-skanda-saṃvāda" in chapter 26. All three characterizations mean "dialogue between god Śiva and his son Skanda".
- In order to define the attribution/self-affiliation, date and provenance of our manuscript, we need to investigate the two terms: the Nandīpurāṇa and the Kedārakalpa.
- The Nandīpurāṇa has survived in a large number of manuscripts, and at least 2 different editons are known (see bibliography). The edition Nāṃdipurāṇam 2010 does not contain the Kedārakalpa, and has a very different set of speakers. The Gujarati edition has not been checked, but it does not appear to contain the Kedārakalpa either based on the description by Rocher. (Nota: Rocher (p. 200-201): “This text, in fifty-two adhyayas, is actually a caste purāṇa. It was composed for the glorification of the Nandimukha or Nandavana brahmans of Gujarat and part of Rajputana around Puskara in Ajmer. It describes how these brahmans abandoned their original way of life, and became merchants. Based on their different gotras the Nandimukhas are divided into eleven groups; some are Vaisnava, others Śaiva, and others Śākta.")
- The Nandīpurāṇa has been dated by Ludo Rocher to ca. 6th-7th century CE (Nota: Rocher 1986, citing p. 200-201: K. V. Rangaswami Aiyangar: Nandipurāṇa, NIA 4, 1941-42, 157-161; - Hazra: The Nandi-purāṇa, JGJRI 2, 1944-45, 305-320; - Hazra 1954: 31; - Kane 1962: 890-891; - Hazra: 1963: 474-488; - NCC 9 (1977), 334-335; - B.P. Pandya: some remarks on the title "Nandī-purāṇa", JOIB 28, 1978-79, 48-55.), but none of the known manuscripts of the Nandīpurāṇa or of the Kedārakalpa can be dated that early. Rocher writes that "even though many verses from it have been quoted in the dharmanibandhas, no manuscript has yet been found. It has been dated in the sixth or seventh century (Hazra), or the eighth or ninth century (Kane)." The disappearance of the root-text of the Nandīpurāṇa is "one of the unsolved riddles in Puranic history". (Nota: K. V. Rangaswami Aiyangar, op. cit. 161.)
- The only definite affirmation that Hazra made about the "original" Nandīpurāṇa is the fact that its speakers are Śiva, Skanda and Nandī. (Nota: Hazra, 1963: 474-488.) Hazra declared the original text to be a śaiva work, inducing the worship of śivaliṅga and providing the sectarian śaiva mantras, p. 480-481. (Nota: He insists particularly on the OṂ NAMAḤ ŚIVĀYA.)
- What we have here (Bodmer 708) is precisely a text, which claims to be a part of that mythical Nandīpurāṇa, and whose set of speakers, the śaiva character and the śaiva mantras would fit the description by Hazra given above of the “original” Nandīpurāṇa. However, it is not impossible that the Kedārakalpa tries to link itself to the Nandīpurāṇa not because it really formed a part of the “original” Nandīpurāṇa, but in order to instantly gain authority. This is quite typical for the late Sanskrit texts.
The situation with the Kedārakalpa is best described in NCC. It has 24 occurrences of the Kedārakalpa in published 39 vols., we can conclude from these references that Kedārakalpa is included in some very different texts, and that is why Hazra saw the Kedārakalpa as independent from the original Nandīpurāṇa.
In the NCC the main entry of the Kedārakalpa belongs to vol. 5, p. 30f. The authors of the NCC separate Kedārakalpa mss into 3 groups:
- 1. of which nothing is known
- 2. with tantric attribution
- 3. with purāṇic attribution
- In the NCC the main entry of the Kedārakalpa belongs to vol. 5, p. 30f. The authors of the NCC separate Kedārakalpa mss into 3 groups:
The Kedārakalpa survived also in a number of independent manuscripts.
- NGMCP has 21 mss with the same title, E1850/2 is the earliest among the dated ones, it is NS 800 (~1680 CE). This date can be preliminary assumed as the terminus ante quem for the Kedārakalpa manuscripts.
Other evidence that would argue for the early (earlier than 1680) date of our Kedārakalpa as a text (and not as a manuscript) include:
- 1. The mantras given in the text are very ancient and rather basic. These are not tantric, i.e. not śākta-tantric. The purāṇic texts are dated usually based on the presence of the tantric elements: more tantric elements are an indication of rather late character of the text. This would argue for a rather ancient character of the text.
- 2. The textual presentation is rather naive and is close to the Ur-Skandapurāṇa (Nota: Ed. of Bakker, etc.), considered so far to be the most ancient purāṇic text that came down to us, and dated to ca. 6th-7th century AD.
- 3. The sacred places glorified in this text are known from the earliest purāṇas, such as the Vāyupurāṇa and the (Ur-)Skandapurāṇa.
- The fact that would argue against the early character of this present manuscript is its rather corrupted Sanskrit.
- Further comparative analysis is needed in order to clarify the position of this very interesting text. (Nota: Same conclusion is suggested by Whitmore, who recently wrote a PhD on the history of worship of the Kedarnath as a sacred place, see the dissertation of Whitmore, 2010. Whitmore has located 2 printed editions of the Kedārakalpa.)
Conventions for the partial transcript done by Olga Serbaeva, 2017.03.02:
- Simple text = what is in the manuscript, with minor corrections
In [ ], my additions and various emendations, such as
- number of folios, example [1v]
- [+X] is an addition of the missing syllable or a part suggested by me.
- [-X] is a deleting of an unnecessary or repeated part
- [/X], other possible reading in [ ]
- The text is not complete: last complete chapter is 27, the chapter 28 is unfinished: we have verses till v. 91, but no colophon.
- fol. V1r-V9v, empty
- fol. V10r, painting: Gaṇeśa is sitting on the throne, accompanied by his vehicle, a mouse/rat down in the middle of the picture. Behind the thrones are two female servants of Gaṇeśa holding plates of sweets. In front of the throne are two princesses, and the goddess Sarasvatī holding a vīṇā, i.e. a musical instrument and a book. She is sitting on a bird which looks like a crane, but is usually supposed to be a haṃsa, i.e. swan. The gods, i.e. Gaṇeśa and Sarasvatī are distinguished from normal humans by the greenish nimbus. In the rightmost part of the image is another servant girl holding a camara, or a tail of yak, which she moves for refreshment.
- fol. V10v, painting: The main subject is god Śiva teaching Devī in the left upper corner of the picture. Down, the couple has their respective vāhanas, i.e. vehicles, bull for Śiva, (whose name is Nandī) and who likely gave the name to the present purāṇa, and the tiger for the goddess. On the right side there is an old yogi with white hair who came to worship the couple. More to the right - there is another yogi sitting, while down the picture we have an idyllic scene of yogis swimming and resting near the water.
fol. 1r, starting [in red:]
6 śrīganeśaya namaḥ // atha kedārakalpa liṣate // śrīguruve namaḥ // oṃ guru brahmā guru viṣṇo gurur devaṃ maheśvaraṃ // gurudeva jagat sarvaṃ tasmai śrīgurubhyo namaḥ // śrīdatāttreya siddhāya namaḥ // [speaker:] naṃdīr uvāca //
[in black:] [I added spaces between the words when possible for easier reading.]
pṛcchāmy ahaṃ karomī prāsādhakānāṃ hitāya vai // māhāpaṃthena yāsyaṃti kecic chaktyā hi mānavāḥ // 1 //
tasyārthe ca phalaṃ brūhi satyaṃ deva sadāśivaḥ /
gaṃcchati sādhakā sarve svayaṃ dehena saṃkara // 2
iti nadivacaḥ śrutvā harṣapūrṇo sadāśivaḥ /
śruyatāṃ naṃdimanasā ity uvāca sadāśivaḥ // 3
[speaker:] īśvarovāca //
manasākarmaṇāvācā saptajanmāni kilbiṣaṃ /
kṛte teṣāṃ vinasyaṃti ye śṛṇvaṃti māhāpathaṃ // 4
dūrlabhaṃ devatānāṃ ca durlabhaṃ itarejane /
durlabhaṃ gaṇagaṃdharvai svaśāstraṃ ca vadāmy ahaṃ // 
durlabhaṃ divyaśāstraṃ ca bhuktimuktipradāyakaṃ //
śrūtvā vighnā vinaśyaṃti sarvapāpai pramucyate // 5 [i.e. 6, further numeration has not been corrected.]
śrotā ca kathitāś caiva śivakalpaṃ māhāpathaṃ /
pade pade mahāpuṇyaṃ gaṃgāsnānaphalaṃ labhet // 6
jātyaṃdhāmānuṣāstena mahāpaṃthaṃ na paśyati /
paśyaṃti yāṃ na mārgaṃ ca dūtāpāpena to dūtā // 7
yatra tiṣṭaṃti kalpaṃ ca tatra tiṣṭhaṃti devatā //
aṣṭaṣaṣṭyādi tīrthāni khyātāni bhuvanatraye // 
brahmāviṣṇumaheśānāṃ sureṃdras tridaśaṃpatiḥ /
devatāsahitas tasya sabaho tatra tiṣṭati // 9
svargamṛtyuś ca pātāle grahanapatrasaṃyutaiḥ /
yatra tiṣṭaṃti kalpaṃ ca sarve tiṣṭaṃti tatra vai // 10
pavitraṃ vai sadā puṇyaṃ yatrakalpaṃ mahāpathaṃ /
sudeśe rudratulpo vai viśeṣaṃ paṃthamaṃdireḥ // 11
gṛhe yasya sadākalpaṃ ye śṛṇvaṃti paṃṭhaṃti ca //
rājadvāre yamadvāre bhayaṃ tasya na vidyate // 12 vārāṇasyaṃ kuruṣetre prayāge gaṃgayāsa [next folio]
fol. 1v, verses 13cd-23.
vasaṃty etāni tīrthāni gṛhe yasya mahāpathaṃ // 13
mahāpaṃthaṃ mahākalpaṃ sarvakālaṃ pavaṭhaṃti caḥ //
phalaṃ kedārayāṃtrā[trā is corrected with something white]yāṃs te labhaṃti grahesthitā // 14
pitaraḥ sahitāḥ sarve aṃte yaṃti śivālayaṃ //
na neṣāṁ punar āvṛti kalpakoṭiśatair api // 15
śaṃkarasya prasādena viṣṇunā ca viśeṣataḥ /
gacchaṃti śivasānidhāṃ bhujaṃti vipulāśriyāṃ // 16
teṣāṃ tuṣṭo mahādeva umāsārddhaṃ ttrilocanaḥ /
te labhaṃte mahākalpaṃ devānām api durlabhaṃ // 17
vinā rudraprasādena na labhaṃte mahālathaṃ /
yetāni ca mahādevaṃ satyaṃ satyaṃ vadāmy ahaṃ // 18
yasmin eva parā purvaṃ arcayitvā maheśvaraṃ /
rājyaṃ svargaṃ ca mokṣaṃ ca te labhaṃte yuge yuge // 19
pṛṭhvī ca paratiṣṭaṃti vallīkṛṣṇatṛṇāni ca /
tasyasaṃkhyā na jānati hemapurṇaṃ na vedy ahaṁ // 20
kedāraṃ prathamaṃ pūjya gaṃdhapuṣpākṣatais tathā /
tatonīrājanaṃ kāryaṃ paścād gamanam ārabhet // 21
Painting: Painting features 12 priests worshipping 12 śivalingas, i.e. the symbols of the god Śiva with various offerings.
fol. 2r, text only, verses from 22 to 33 [evident mistake in numerations].
tadādau jyotiliṃgāni smṛtvā śivapathaṃ bhajet //
ujjayinyāṃ mahākālaṃ prayāge saṃgameśvaraṃ // 22 [line is corrected with something white]
vārāṇasyāṃ viśvanāthaṃ gayāyāṃ śaṃkaraṃ śubhaṃ /
rāmeśaṃ setubaṃdhe ca śrīśaile mallikādbhutaṃ // 23
kasmād ekāyarūpaṃ ca kāmeśaṃ mahiśaṃgame /
mahyāttire sadātīrṣṭedaṃ deśaṃ daṃḍanāyakaṃ // 24
revāyāṃ ca vṛhalliṃgaṃ oṃkāraṃ narmadātaṭe /
tile tile mahādevaṃ ahyodhyāṃ ca vyavasthitaṃ // 25
mukhyāṃ sthānaṃ mahānaṃdinamahy amarakaṃṭake /
gopeśvaraṃ mahāliṅge tapatitīrasaṃsthitaṃ // 26
karddameśaṃ mahāliṅgaṃ tapatp[/y]ā dakṣiṇe taṭe /
gomate ca mahādurge gokarṇe liṅgam uttamaṃ // 27
eteṣu sthānake naṃdin aṃśaṃśenavyavasthitaṃ /
kedāreśāṃ mahāliṅge sadā tiṣṭāmi naṃdina // 28
kedāreśaṃ mahāliṅge parvate gaṃdhamādane /
tatra tiṣṭāmy ahaṃ nityaṃ śivayā sahitaṃ sadā // 29
tasmāt śāstrapramāṇena kedāresaṃ mama priyaṃ /
dharāyāṃ sarvasthānāni śivaksetrāṇi naṃdina // 30
tasmāt koṭiguṇaṃ vatsa kedāraṃ sthānakaṃ śubhaṃ /
manvaṃtara sahasreṇa kāśīvāsena yatphalaṃ // 31
tatphalaṃ prāpyate naṃdin kedārādarśane kṛte /
kalaudhanyāmanuṣyās temate kedāradarśane // [ ]
pitaras tasyan tuṣṭaṃti devagaṃdharvamānasaḥ // 32
kalikāle mahāghore sarvadharmavahiḥ kṛte /
dhanyās te mānavāloke ye pasyaṃti mahāpathaṃ // 33
[In red: colophone of the chapter 1:] iti śrī naṃdiśvarapurāṇe kedārakalpe prathamodhyāyaḥ // 1 //
verses 1-beg. of 3ab:
śṛṇu putra vara vakṣyāmi mahimāṃ śaṃkarasya te /
śṛṇoti paṭhate yas tu śivakalpaṃ mahāpathaṃḥ // 1
pade pade mahāpuṇyaṃ aśvamedhaphalaṃ sadā /
yadāmatiṃ ca kurute kedāre gamanaṃ prati // 2
tadoktaṃ [next fol.]
fol. 2v, verses 3-17.
ca vinirmukto gāyaṃti pitaro divi /
mahāpaṃthe matiḥ kṛtva gaṃgāsnāna phalaṃ labhet // 3
niṃdatte ca śivaṃ mūḍhāḥ ānadeva upāsakāḥ /
narake gacchaṃte maṃdāḥ kṛmikīṭapataṃgakāḥ // 4
ye maṃdāḥ mānavāḥ loke na śṛṇvaṃti mahāpathaṃ /
yo na mārgena gacchaṃti dūtāpāpena mohitāḥ // 5
yatraiva tiṣṭate kalpaṃ tatra tiṣṭaṃti devatāḥ /
aṣṭaṣaṣṭyāditīrthāṇi vasate tatra putraka // 6
aṣṭāśitisahastrāṇi tīrthāni bhuvanatraye /
tāni sarvāṇi tatraiva yatra kalpam anuttamaṃ // 7
brahmāvuṣṇumaheśāna sureṃdra tridaśādhipaḥ /
sarve devaḥ samāyāmti yata kalpaṃ ca tiṣtati // 8
svarge martye ca pātāle yāni tīrthāni saṃti vai /
caturdaśyāṃ mahānaṃdin kedāre vasate dhruvaṃ // 9
pavitrāṇāṃ pavitraṃ yo maṃgalānāṃ ca maṃgalaṃ /
gṛhe yasya ca tiṣtaṃti maṃgalaṃ paramaṃ bhavet // 10
svargamṛtyaṃ ca pātālaṃ gṛhana[+k]ṣa[/e?]tradevatāḥ /
yatra tiṣṭaṃti kalpaṃ ca tatsarvaṃ tatratiṣṭati // 11
pavitrāṇi sadā tatra yatra kalpaṃ mahāpathaṃ /
sadeśo rudra tulyo vai viśeṣo yatra maṃdire // 12
gṛhe yasya sadā kalpaṃ ye śṛṇvaṃti paṭhaṃti ca /
yamadvāre mahāghore bhayaṃ teṣāṃ na vidyate // 13
vārāṇaśīṃ kurukṣetraṃ prayāgaṃ puṣkaraṃ tathā /
prabhāsaṃ dvārakaṃ siṃdhuṃ tiṣtate tatra sarvadā // 14
etāni tat hṛhe saṃti hṛhe yasya mahāpathaṃ /
māhāpaṃthaṃ mahākalpaṃ sarvakālaṃ paṭheta vai // 15
phalam kedāra yātrāyāṃ labhaṃtīha hṛhe sthitā /
pitaraḥ sahitās tasya gacchaṃti ca śivālaye // 16
na teṣāṃ punar āvṛti kalpakoṭiśatair api /
śaṃkarasya prasādena viṣṇunā ca viśeṣataḥ // 17 [next fol.]
fol. 3r, text, verses 18-30.
gacchaṃti śivasānidhyaṃ bhujaṃti vipulāṃ śriyaṃ //
yeṣāṃ teṣṭau mahādeva umāsārddhaṃ maheśvaraḥ // 18
te labhaṃti mahākalpaṃ devānām api durllabhaṃ /
vinārudrāprasādena na labhaṃti mahāpathyaṃ // 19
etad eva mahānaṃdin satyaṃ satyaṃ vadāmy ahaṃ /
yasminn eva mahāpūrvaṃ arcayitvā maheśvaraṃ // 20
rājyaṃ svargaṃ ca mokṣaṃ ca te labhaṃti yuge yuge /
pṛthivyopari tiṣṭaṃti balīvṛkṣatṛṇāni ca // 21
tasya saṃyāṃ na jānāmi hemapu[-r]ṇyaṃ na vedmy ahaṃ /
sāgare tu dutaṃsena anaṃtaṃ vipulaṃ mahat // 22
tasyasaṃkhyāṃ na jānāmi hemapurṇyaṃ na vedmyahaṃ
caturāśītilakṣāṇi jīvayonisamanvitā // 23
aṃḍajāḥ śvedajāś caiva udbhidā ca jarāyujāḥ /
ekaviṃśatilakṣāṇi jīvānāṃ parisaṃkṣ[/khy]ayā // 24
śiśumāre mahācakre abhranakṣatrasaṃyute /
tasya saṃkhyā na jānāmi hemapuṇyaṃ na vedmy ahaṃ // 25
pātālabhūtalaṃ vyoma pṛthvīṃ sāgaramekhalāṃ /
datvā ca dvijamukhyebhyo hemapuṇyaṃ tatodhikaṃ // 26
hemabhāra sahasrāṇāṃ kurukṣetre ravigrahe /
yo datvā ca dvijātīnāṃ hemapuṇyaṃ tatodhikaṃ // 27
pratyahaṃ go sahasraṃ ca prabhāse dīyate sadā /
tasyā saṃkhyāṃ vijānāti hemapuṇyaṃ tatodhikaṃ // 28
sarvatīrthaphalaṃ prāpya sarvadānaphalaṃ bhavet /
sarvayajñaphalaṃ teṣāṃ ye gacchaṃti himālayaṃ // 29
sarvapāpavinirmukto hemamārgena aitamam // 30[ab]
[Colophone of the chapter 2:] iti śrīnaṃdikeśvarapurāṇe śivanaṃdisaṃvāde kedārakalpe dvitīyodhyāyaḥ // 2 //
ataḥ paraṃ mārgasādhanaṃ gaṃtavya mahimā //
[speaker:] śiva uvāca //
śrṇu naṃdī mamavaco devānāṃ durllabham sadā /
mahāpaṃthe mahāghore mahāraudre bhayaṃkare // 1
- fol. 3v, verses 2-17ab.
fol. 4r, verses 17ab-30.
[Colophon of the chapter 3:] iti śrīnaṃdikeśvarapurāṇe kedārakalpe tṛtīyodhyāyā // 3 //
[speaker:] śiva uvāca //
- fol. 4v, verses 1-15.
fol. 5r, verses 15-29.
[Colophone of the chapter 4:] iti śrīnaṃdīkeśvarapurāṇe kedārakalpe caturthādhyāyaḥ // 4 //
[speaker:] naṃdīr uvāca //
fol. 5v, verses 1-7.
[speakers:] īśvarovāca // naṃdī uvāca //
Painting: Image features an elevated place where Śiva and the goddess are sitting in front of each other. They are being refreshed by Gaṇeśa fanning them. On the red carpet in a row are sitting various kinds of gods, humans and demons, 7 figures from left to right : a son of Śiva called Skanda, Viṣṇu, Brahma, two human looking kings, a demon, a yogi. In the down right corner there is another yogi with white hair.
As on the previous image, the water appears to come from the mouth of a cow/bull, and it is certainly a reference to a sacred place in the Himalayas, i.e. the Kedārnāth and Gomukh.
- fol. 6r, verses 8-22.
fol. 6v, painting: Features one of the sacred places in the Himalayas. We see two temples: one of Devī in the top right corner. In front of the temple are two groups of religious ascetics, yogis. One group is sitting in front of their leader who is cooking something in the pot. Another group, holding pots is walking on the road. In the right most part of the picture there is a white elephant and what appears to look like a white moon-sickle, or a skull-bone.
The second temple has a black animal, probably a bull rushing inside of it, like as if going inside the solid rock. In front of that there are again two groups of ascetics. One is sitting near the pond, the other, all with tridents - standing.
fol. 7r, text, verses 22-33.
[speakers:] kārtikeya uvāca //
īśvara uvāca //
[In red after v. 30: mantras:]
atha maṃtraprakāraḥ // oṃ kṣaṃ oṃ kṣaṃ huṃ huṃ kṣam huṃ kṣaṃ huṃ oṃ // atha dvitīya maṃtra // oṃ haṃ kṣaṃ ha kṣaṃ ha kṣaṃ haṃ kṣaṃ oṃ //
Painting: 5 ascetics worship liṅga of Śiva.
- fol. 7v, verses 33-47.
- fol. 8r, text, verses 47-51, further mantras are given in red and black, and they are not numbered.
- fol. 8v, text. Mantras, further verses numbered from 53 to 60.
- fol. 8_001r, a part of another text, not related to the present mss, scribe stopped as he had realized the mistake.
- fol. 8_001v-8_002v, empty
fol. 9r, painting: On the left side kings worship śivaliṅga in the temple. Near the temple are many birds and fish in water, with śaiva ascetics on both sides.
On the right part of the picture, where the yogis arrive to the separation of 3 road, sits an ascetic, like as if marking a passage between two separate divisions of the world. Indeed, in the right side live gods: Śiva on the top with Devī, Skanda and Gaṇeśa, in the middle part - Brahma, and down - Viṣṇu.
fol. 9v, text, verses 61-74.
[speakers:] Utathya uvāca, Siddhā ucuḥ, brāhmaṇa uvāca.
fol. 10r, text, verses 75-88.
[Colophon of the chapter 5:] iti śrīnaṃdīpurāṇe kedārakalpe paṃcamodhyāyaḥ // 5 //
- fol. 10v, painting: City, in the middle of which there is a śaiva temple, in which the yogis and the king worship śivaliṅga.
- fol. 11r, painting: The worlds of yogis and gods. To the left - the worlds where the yogis are engaged in practice or swim in the river. On the right - celestial cities of Viṣṇu in the upper part up and of Brahma - down.
fol. 11v, text, verses 1-14.
[speaker:] īśvaro uvāca //
- fol. 12r, painting: Same city as on the before-last picture. Just the city is now filled with divine beings inside and outside as well. Gopīs, i.e. cowherd girls are dancing outside the city walls, Kṛṣṇa is playing flute inside, Nandī (a bull-headed figure) plays music together with human musicians.
- fol. 12v, painting: Again similar city to the previous image. Main difference is in mapping of water outside of the city, and the fact that god Viṣṇu worship śivaliṅga inside the city.
- fol. 13r, text, verses 15-29.
- fol. 13v, text, verses 30-43.
fol. 14r, text, verses 44-56
[speakers:] rājo uvāca, siddhā ucuḥ, rājo uvāca, siddhā ucuḥ.
fol. 14v, text, verses 57-64.
[speaker:] rājo uvāca.
Painting: Picture down the page: a yogi sits in the middle. Behind him, on the right are women and animals; in front of him two tigers are drinking from the lake, and 5 yogis arrive from the left.
- fol. 15r, painting: The city of nāgas, i.e. of supernatural serpents considered to be the holders of esoteric lore. In the middle of the city there is a temple with śivaliṅga around which there are nāginīs and serpents.
- fol. 15v, painting: City of nāgas close up. The śivaliṅga is now being worshiped by gods: Brahma and Viṣṇu, the king of the city is also present. All company is surrounded by female serpents, nāginīs. More gods arrive by air on the vimānas, i.e. aerial cars.
- fol. 16r, text, verses 65-79.
- fol. 16v, painting: Yogis arrive towards the building composed of two stores, the down one is probably a palace or living space, while on the roof there is a small śaiva temple with a liṅga. Yogis worship the liṅga, Nandī and women playing music.
- fol. 17r, text, verses 80-93.
- fol. 17v, text, verses 94-107. [After 100, the numeration is given again as 1, 2, 3 etc.]
- fol. 18r, text, verses 108-116, painting: Picture down, featuring yogis going to the right, headed by Nandī, three kings, and a group of another yogis.
- fol. 18v, painting: Yogis reach destination, and worship śivaliṅga in a temple, which does not belong to a city. Yogis swim in pond, Nandī stands with his musical instrument, while from the left side of the picture arrives god Śiva himself, accompanied by the goddess, both sitting on the white bull. God Śiva is being greeted by women.
fol. 19r, text, verses 117-126.
[Colophon of the chapter 6:] iti śrīnaṃdīpurāṇe kedārakalpe vihārapāṭalaprayāṇe prathamapurīvarṇane ṣaṣṭhodhyāyaḥ // 6 //
[speaker:] Naṃdī uvāca, [next speaker:] īśvara uvāca,
text, verses 1-2.
- fol. 19v, painting: Yogis taking meal on the left side. On the right side there is an oval with 3 parts, each standing for one of the three worlds of the Hindu mythology: downworld, that of serpents, of which the principal is Śeṣanāga; middle world - that of animals and humans, and the upper world, that of gods. There we see a divine king to whom comes Nandī.
- fol. 20r, text, verses 3-11, painting: Picture down: yogis and Nandī worship śivalinga. Fish, turtles, crocodiles and two humans play in water.
- fol. 20v, text, verses 12-26.
- fol. 21r, text, verses 27-41.
- fol. 21v, text, verses 42-55.
fol. 22r, text, verses 56-69.
[speaker:] siddhā ucu[ḥ].
fol. 22v, text, verses 70-82.
[speaker:] kanpakā uvāca, siddhā ucuḥ, kampakā uvāca.
[Colophon of the chapter 7:] iti śrīnaṃdīpurāṇe kedārakalpe śaṃkhapālapurīgamane nāma saptamodhyāyaḥ.
[speaker:] īśvara uvāca.
fol. 23r, text, verses 1-14.
[speakers:] śaṃkhapāla uvāca, śaṃkhapāla uvāca, siddhā ucuḥ, rājo uvāca, siddhā ucuḥ , śaṃkhapāla uvāca.
- fol. 23v, text, verses 15-28.
fol. 24r, text, verses 29-36.
[Colophone of chapter 8:] iti śrīnaṃdīpurāṇe kedārakalpe śaṃkhapālavākyaṃ nāma aṣṭamodhyāyaḥ // 8 //
[speaker:] ācārya uvāca.
text, verses 1-7.
fol. 24v, text, verses 8-21.
[speakers:] rājo uvāca, ācārya uvāca.
- fol. 25r, text, verses 22-35.
- fol. 25v, text, verses 36-49.
fol. 26r, text, verses 50-53.
[Colophon of the chapter 9:] iti śrīnaṃdīpurāne kedārakalpe navamodhyāyaḥ // 9 //
text, verses 1-10.
[speaker:] ācārya uvāca.
fol. 26v, text, verses 11-26.
[speakers:] kanpakā ucuḥ, siddhā ucuḥ, kanpā uvāca, siddhā ucuḥ, kanpā uvāca, siddhā ucuḥ, śaṃkhapāla uvāca.
fol. 27r, text, verses 24-35.
[Colophon of the chapter 10:] iti śrīnaṃdīpurāne kedārakalpe śamkhapālapūrvajanmavarṇanonāma dasamodhyāyaḥ // 10 //
text, verses 1-3.
[speaker:] īśvara uvāca.
- fol. 27v, painting: Yogis receive audience at the king's palace in a big city.
- fol. 28r, painting: Yogis meet a queen and her female servants in the garden of the city.
- fol. 28v, painting: Yogis meet plenty of women under a tree in the garden.
fol. 29r, text, verses 4-17.
[speakers:] siddhā ucuḥ, īśvara uvāca.
fol. 29v, text, verses 18-31.
[speakers:] rāja uvāca, ācārya uvāca.
fol. 30r, text, verses 32-37.
[Colophon of the chapter 11:] iti śrīnaṃdīpurāṇe īśvaraskaṃdhasaṃvāde kedarakalpe ekādaśodhyāyaḥ // 11 //
[speaker:] īśvara uvāca.
fol. 30v, text, verses 8-20.
[speaker:] ācārya uvāca.
fol. 31r, text, verses 22-34.
[speakers:] satpāla uvāca, siddhā ucuḥ, kanpā uvāca.
fol. 31v, text, verses 35-47.
[speakers:] ācārya uvāca, kanpā uvāca.
fol. 32r, text, verses 48-61.
[speaker:] satpāla uvāca.
fol. 32v, text, verses 62-75.
[speakers:] brāhmaṇa uvāca, gautama uvāca.
fol. 33r, text, verses 76-83.
[Colophon of the chapter 12:] iti śrīnaṃdīpurāṇe kedārakalpe satyapālapūrvajanmavarṇano nāma dvādasodhyāyaḥ // 12.
[speakers:] rāja uvāca, ācārya uvāca, rāja uvāca.
fol. 33v, text, verses 6-18.
[speakers:] ācārya uvāca, rājovāca, rājovāca.
fol. 34r, text, verses 17-28.
[Colophon of the chapter 13:] iti śrīnaṃdīpurāṇe īśvaraskaṃdhasaṃvāde kedārakalpe trayodasodhyāyaḥ // 13.
Painting: Five yogīs go towards a single yogi sitting in the mountains and accompanied by a tiger and a peacock. He is addressed in the text as ācārya, i. e. preceptor.
- fol. 34v, painting: Yogis arrive to a city high up in the mountains and receive an audience with the king.
- fol. 35r, painting: Yogis meet a large number of noble people, nāgas, and even a couple of demons, each couple sitting in their respective chariot.
- fol. 35v, painting: Yogis receive audience with a king near a fountain.
fol. 36r, text, verses 1-14.
[speakers:] naṃdīr uvāca, īśvara uvāca.
fol. 36v, text, verses 15-18.
[Colophon of the chapter 14:] iti śrīnaṃdīpurāṇe īśvaraskaṃdasaṃvāde kedārakalpe caturdas[i.e. ś]odhyāya // 14.
Painting: Picture down: 5 yogis walk. In the top right corner a yogi sits on the mountains with a tiger.
- fol. 37r, painting: Yogis worship śivaliṅga, which is installed on a platform, itself situated on a pond. On the left side we see many couples of kings and queens in their chariots. Pond is full of fish, crocodiles and turtles.
fol. 37v, text, verses 1-15.
[speaker:] īśvara uvāca.
- fol. 38r, text, verses 16-20, painting: Yogis walk in a paradise like garden among the trees full of fruits, flowers and birds.
- fol. 38v, painting: Yogis worship śivaliṅga in a palace situated on a sort of pond in the midst of lake. They are accompanied by Nandī and female musicians.
fol. 39r, text, verses 21-35.
[speakers:] rāja uvāca, siddhā ucuḥ.
fol. 39v, text, verses 36-44
rājovāca, ācaryovāca, rājovāca.
[Colophon of the chapter 15:] iti śrīnaṃdīpurāṇe īśvaraskaṃdhasaṃvāde kedārakalpe paṃcadasodhyāyaḥ // 15.
[mantra:] Śrīnarvadāyai namaḥ
[speakers:] īśvara uvāca, kānpā uvāca.
fol. 40r, text, verses 5-17.
[speakers:] siddhā ucuḥ, rājovāca, ācārya uvāca.
- fol. 40v, text, verses 18-32.
- fol. 41r, painting: The yogis arrive to the high mountain city where they receive an audience of two kings.
- fol. 41v, painting: Yogis meet two kings and a whole company of likely their wives.
fol. 42r, text, verses 33-35.
[Colophon of the chapter 16:] iti śrīnaṃdīpurāṇe kedārakalpe soḍasodhyāyaḥ // 16 //
[speaker:] īśvara uvāca.
[other speakers:] brāhmaṇa uvāca, brāhmaṇa uvāca, ācāryovāca.
fol. 42v, text, verses 12-25.
fol. 43r, text, verses 26-37.
[speaker:] īśvara uvāca.
[Colophon of the chapter 17:] iti śrīnaṃdīpurāṇe kedārakalpe saptadaśodhyāyaḥ // 17.
Painting: Picture down: yogis march towards ācārya sitting alone with a tiger on a mountain.
- fol. 43v, painting: Yogis are being greeted by an old yogi and they are further met by Śiva sitting together with the goddess on the white bull. They fall on the ground to show their respect.
fol. 44r, text, verses 1-14.
īśvara uvāca, siṃhovāca, siṃhovāca.
[Mantra:] ōṃ hūṃ phaṭ svāhā //
fol. 44v, text, verses 15-19.
[speakers:] indra uvāca, ācaryovāca.
Painting: The 5 yogis are meeting likely god Indra and a huge tiger.
- fol. 45r, text, verses 20-34.
fol. 45v, text, verses 35-47.
[speakers:] kanpā uvāca, sādhakovāca, caṃpakā uvāca, ācāryovāca, caṃpikovāca, sādhakovāca, caṃpikovāca.
fol. 46r, text, verses 48-60.
[speakers:] campikovāca, īśvarovāca.
fol. 46v, text, verses 61-74.
[speakers:] ācāryovāca, caṃpikovāca.
fol. 47r, text, verses 75-89.
[Colophon of the chapter 18, start:] iti śrīnaṃdīpurāṇe īśvaraskaṃdhasaṃvāde kedārakalpe caṃpikapūrvajanmavararṇano.
- fol. 47v, painting: Yogis meet queen Caṃpikā in a city.
- fol. 48r, painting: Queen Campikā holds hands with a yogi, while his guru, and thee other yogis, as well as multiple women look at that.
fol. 48v, text.
[end of colophon of the chapter 18:] nāma aṣṭādasodhyāyaḥ// 18
[speaker:] īśvara uvāca. Verses 1-14.
- fol. 49r, text, verses 15-28.
fol. 49v, text, verses 29-42.
[speakers:] kanpā uvāca, siddhā uvāca, ṛṣir uvāca, sādhakovāca, ṛṣir uvāca.
fol. 50r, text, verses 43-55.
[Colophon of the chapter 19:]
iti śrīnaṃdīpurāṇe śaṃbhuskaṃdhasaṃvāde kedarākalpe ṛṣipūrvajanmavarṇano nāma ekonaviṃśamodhyāyaḥ // 19 //
- fol. 50v, painting: Yogis see again that oval figure with the triple world presented as the three layers of it. All that is going on inside a city.
- fol. 51r, painting: Picture separated into 2 parts. On the left we see a mountains, in the cave of which the yogis are engaged in yoga practice, while on the top sits Naṇdī accompanied by women-musicians and kings. In the right part of the picture we see a city in which these same five yogis receive an audience with the king. Down part of the city has a śivaliṅga being adored by a brāhmin, there is also Gaṇeśa teaching other brāhmaṇa, and a yogin engages in tapas, i.e. extreme physical practice: he is suspended upside down over a burning fire.
fol. 51v, text, verses 1-13.
[speakers:] Naṃdīr uvāca, īśvara uvāca.
fol. 52r, text, verses 14-27.
[speaker:] ūrdhvapāda uvāca.
fol. 52v, text, verses 28-40.
[speakers:] sādhakā ucuḥ, ūrdhvapāda uvāca, ācāryovāca, puruṣovāca.
- fol. 53r, text, verses 41-54.
fol. 53v, text, verses 56-69.
[speakers:] ṛṣaya ucuḥ, rāja uvāca.
fol. 54r, text, verses 70-77.
[speakers:] siddhā ucuḥ, rājovāca.
[Colophon of the chapter 20:] iti śrīnaṃdīpurāṇe śaṃbhuskaṃdhasaṃvāde kedārakalpe saṃtanupūrvajanmakathano nāma viṃsamodhyāyaḥ // 20 //
Painting: Yogis leave the ācārya on the snow mountain with his tiger and continue their way.
- fol. 54v, painting: Yogis meet the tapasvin Ūrdhvapāda, suspended over the fire. They also see a city on a pillar. In that city, Nandī and the women worship śivaliṅga.
- fol. 55r, painting: Yogis meet a man standing near white tissue.
fol. 55v, text.
[speakers:] īśvarovāca, gṛha uvāca, gṛha uvāca. Verses 1-13.
fol. 56r, text, verses 14-27.
[speakers:] ācāryovāca, naṃdanovāca, sādhakā ucuḥ.
fol. 56v, text, verses 28-36.
[speakers:] ācāryovāca, naṃdana uvāca, sādhakā ucuḥ.
[Colophon of the chapter 21:] iti śrīnaṃdipurāṇe śaṃbhuskaṃdhasaṃvāde kedārakalpe ekaviṃśodhyāyaḥ 21.
Painting: The five yogis return to the ācārya sitting on snow mountain and who is always accompanied by a tiger.
- fol. 57r, painting: Yogis are arriving to a three-stored palace. In top left corner there are many serpents. In the right side of the picture these yogis pass an unusual tree.
fol. 57v, text.
[mantra:] Śrīnarmādayai namaḥ //
[speaker:] īśvara uvāca.
fol. 58r, text, verses 15-28.
[speakers:] pratihāra uvāca, rudragaṇā ūcuḥ, kanpā uvāca.
[Mantra:] ōṃ vaṃ huṃ phaṭ svāhā 1000 [and] 8 //
fol. 58v, text, verses 28-41.
[speakers:] kanpā uvāca , padmāvatī uvāca, padmāvatī uvāca, sādhakā ūcuḥ, padmāvatī uvāca.
fol. 59r, text, verses 42-55.
fol. 59v, text, verses 56-65.
[speakers:] ācāryovāca, ācāryovāca.
[Colophon of the chapter 22:] iti śrīnaṃdīpurāṇe śaṃbhuskaṃdhasaṃvāde kedārakalpe dvāviṃsodhyāyaḥ // 22
Painting: The 5 yogis come again to the ācārya, i.e. preceptor, who is still sitting on the same mountain, just now with two tigers and accompanied by women.
- fol. 60r, painting: A city high in the mountains, in which women worship a female deity; accordng to the position of the lotuses, it is a form of Lakṣmī. Towards the gate of the city arrives a procession consisting of the groups of yogis and kings. In the right part of the picture, in a mountain temple, women and Nandī worship śivaliṅga.
- fol. 60v, painting: Women and yogis near the temple of Lakṣmī.
- fol. 61r, painting: Yogis see Śiva and a multitude of women on chariots looking like boats. In the down left corner of the picture, another group of yogis is standing near a tree, and the preceptor is picking some flowers.
fol. 61v, text.
[speakers:] naṃdīr uvāca, īśvarovaca, ācāryovāca, sthūlapādovāca.
fol. 62r, verses 14-27.
[speakers:] rakṣaka uvāca, nārada uvāca.
fol. 62v, text, verses 28-41.
[speakers:] Yayātir uvāca, nārada uvāca.
fol. 63r, text, verses 41-45.
[Colophon of the chapter 23:] iti śrīnaṃdīpurāne kedārakalpe sthūlapādapūrvajanmakathano nāma triviṃśodhyāyaḥ // 23
Painting: Yogis visit Sthūlapāda, who is lying on the ground.
fol. 63v, text.
[speakers:] īśvarovāca, tāpasī uvāca.
fol. 64r, text, verses 14-27.
[speakers:] siddhā ūcuḥ, tāpasī uvāca.
fol. 64v, text, verses 28-49.
[speakers:] yoṣavatī uvāca, ghoṣavatī uvāca, siddhā ucuḥ, citraratha uvāca.
fol. 65r, text, verses 41-54.
[speakers:] sādhaka uvāca, kanpakā uvāca, rāja uvāca.
fol. 65v, text, verses 55-68.
[mantra:] oṃ huṃ phaṭ svāhā //
fol. 66r, text, verses 69-73.
[Colophon of the chapter 24:] iti śrīnaṃdīpurāṇe kedārakalpe siddhākailāśaprāptonāma caturviṃsodhyāyaḥ // 24.
Painting: A palace, on the roof the yogis see two people standing near a column, other two worshipping śivaliṅga. In the rooms of the palace kings and women amuse themselves on the swings.
- fol. 66v, painting: A city. In the palace the king and the queen, sitting in separate chambers are being cared by the servants. In the middle - the yogis are being greeted by women. Down in the picture, in three separate small chambers, men and women worship śivaliṅga.
- fol. 67r, painting: Yogis arrive to a paradise like garden, and worship there śivaliṅga. In this garden, the other yogis are engaged in the mantra-repetition, other yogis swim in the river. The kings look at all that while being hidden in the trees.
- fol. 67v, painting: The yogis that where doing japa, i.e. mantra-repetition, in the previous picture now instruct the kings in a chamber, while the group of five yogis arrives to the joining point of four roads.
fol. 68r, text.
Chapter 25. [The text starts:] Atha kailaśaṃvarṇapati.
Verses 1-13. [It is a part of the Kedārakalpa, chapter 25]
- fol. 68v, text, verses 14-27.
fol. 69r, text, verses 28-41.
ācāryovāca, sādhaka uvāca, ācāryovāca.
[Mantra] oṃ huṃ phaṭ svāhā //
- fol. 69v, text, verses 42-54.
fol. 70r, text, verses 55-60.
[Colophon of the chapter 25:] iti śrīnaṃdīpurāṇe saṃbhuskaṃdhasaṃvāde kedārakalpe brahmalokamukhakathani nāma paṃcaviṃśodhyāyaḥ // 25
- fol. 70v, text, verses 8-21.
fol. 71r, text, verses 22-34.
[Colophon of the chapter 26:] iti śrīnaṃdīpurāṇe śivasakaṃdhasaṃvāde kedārakalpe kailasasukhakathano nāma ṣaṭviṃsodhyāyaḥ // 26
fol. 71v, text
[speakers:] īśvarovāca, devā ucuḥ, devā ucuḥ.
fol. 72r, text, verses 15-27.
oṃ huṃ phat svāhā// oṃ //
[speaker:] caṃḍīśvara uvāca.
- fol. 72v, painting: Yogis standing in front of Brahma and Viṣṇu, accompanied by many kings and women.
- fol. 73r, painting: Yogis meet god Śiva in the forest. Behind him runs a huge camel.
fol. 73v, text, verses 28-41.
[speaker:] īśvara uvāca.
fol. 74r, text, verses 41-55.
[speaker:] caṃḍīśvara uvāca.
- fol. 74v, text, verses 57-65.
- fol. 75r, text, verses 70-83.
- fol. 75v, text, verses 84-98.
fol. 76r, text, verses 99-102.
[Colophon of the chapter 27:] iti śrīnaṃdīpurāṇe śaṃbhuskaṃdhasaṃvāde kedārakalpe kailāśavarṇano nāma saptaviṃsodhyāyaḥ // 27
[speakers:] śrīpārvaty uvāca, īśvara uvāca.
fol. 76v, text, verses 10-23.
[speaker:] iṃdra uvāca.
fol. 77r, text, verses 25-36.
[speakers:] iṃdra uvāca, sādhaka uvāca, śrīkṛṣṇovāca, sādhakovāca.
fol. 77v, text, verses 37-50.
[speakers:] śrīkṛṣṇovāca, ācārya uvāca, brahmovāca, siddhā ucuḥ.
fol. 78r, text, verses 51-64.
[speakers:] dharma uvāca, sādhakā ucuḥ.
fol. 78v, text, verses 65-88.
[speaker:] rudra uvāca.
- fol. 79r, text, verses 79-91, painting: Yogis come again to the same ācārya sitting in the mountains and accompanied by a tiger.
- fol. 79v, painting: Yogis and kings receive an audience in the palace of Śiva, where they meet Viṣṇu, Śiva, Parvatī [left to right], and Brahmā.
- fol. 80r, painting: Yogis arrive to a palace of a divine king (judging by aura around the face) by an aerial chariot, i.e. they are upgraded to the state of siddhas, i.e. realized beings.
- fol. 80v, painting: Yogis receive an audience with Viṣṇu. in the same city there are now two Nandī-like beings, and plenty of women and yogis.
- fol. 81r, painting: Yogis and kings receive now an audience with Brahma.
- fol. 81v, painting: [The last picture of the mss:] Yogis arrive on the aerial chariot to the palace of king, who most likely is Yamarāja, i.e. god of Death. All around the palace, animalheaded hellish creatures torture sinners in various ways.
- fol. 82r-v, empty.
Written in pencil in German on the flyleaf:
“Altind. li. Ī iv”
“Nandi purana oder Kedarakalpa. Religiöses Epos. Sanskrit Ma. End d. 18. Jh.”
- Flyleaf: Writing in arabic script, probably in Urdu language. Some numbers within it are written in Devanagari: 155 and 10. A name is written in Devanagari, partly unreadable: Xprītālālacandra. XXXX.
Acquisizione del manoscritto: This very same manuscript appeared in Sotheby's according to The Burlington Magazine, of November 1960, p. xiii, saying: "Nandi Purana or Kedarakalpa. Indian manuscript in Sanskrit, eighteenth century", the featured folio is that of 10v of our mss.
Manuscript was acquired by Martin Bodmer, in January 1961 (fol. N13r).
Manuscript was acquired by Martin Bodmer, in January 1961 (fol. N13r).
Known editions of the Nandīpurāṇa:
- (Kedārakalpa) Nārāyaṇasinhajūdeva Bahādur Padumā and J.Hajārībāg, trans., Śrīkedārakalpa. Bombay: Khemarāja Śrīkṛṣṇadās, Śrī Veṅkaṭeśvar Press, 1907).
- (Kedārakalpa) Viśālmaṇi Śarmā Upādhyāya, Kedāra Kalpa. Nārayaṇ Koṭi, Gaṛhvāl: Viśālmaṇī Śarmā Upādhyāya, 1952.
- Nāṃdipurāṇam (mūla anuvāda sahita), sampādaka Lakṣmīnārāyaṇa Nandavāna, Lalita Pāṇḍeya, Devīdatta Śarma ; prākkathana Bhavanī Śaṃkara Garga. Dillī: Nyū Bhāratīya Buka Kārporeśana, 2010.
- Nandīpurāṇa: Nandimukha (Nandavana) brahmanajatine sastrlya itihasa. Ed. and Guj. tr. Vajesamkara Devarama Bola. Calcutta: Damodara Vittalarama Parakhani, 1995 (1938).
- A catalogue of Manuscripts in the Oriental manuscripts library (Prācya Grantha Saṅgraha, now called Scindia Oriental Institute), Ujjain, Vol. 1, 1936; Vol. 2, 1941.
- (RASB) A Descriptive Catalogue of the Manuscripts in the Government collection under the care of the Royal Asiatic Society, ed. by Haraprasād Śāstrī. Vol. 5, Purāṇa, 4133, 1928.
- Goudriaan, Teun and Sanjukta Gupta. Hindu Tantric and Śākta literature, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1981 (A History of Indian Literature, Vol. 2, fasc. 2).
- Hazra, R.C., 1944-45: "The Nandi-purāṇa", in Journal of the Ganganatha Jha Research Institute 2, 305-320.
- Hazra R.C., 1954 : "Some Lost Upapuranas", in Journal of the Asiatic Society (Letters) 20, 15-38.
- Hazra, R.C., Studies in the Upapurāṇas. Vol. 2 Sakta and Non-Sectarian Upapurāṇas, Calcutta: Sanskrit College, 1963. 474-488.
- Kane, Pandurang Vaman: History of Dharmasastra, 1962, Poona: BORI. Vol. 5.2, pp. 815-886 Origin and Development of Purana Literature; pp. 887-912 Brief Notes on Individual Puranas and Upapuranas; pp. 913—1002 Influence of Puranas on Dharmasastra, 1962.
- New Catalogus Catalogorum. An alphabetical register of Sanskrit and allied works and authors. Madras: University of Madras, 1949-. v. 1-39 (Madras University Sanskrit Series). NCC 9 (1977), 334-335.
- (NGMCP) https://www.aai.uni-hamburg.de/en/forschung/ngmcp
- (Niśvāsatattvasaṃhitā) The Niśvāsatattvasaṃhitā : the earliest surviving Śaiva tantra, edited by Dominic Goodall in collaboration with Alexis Sanderson & Harunaga Isaacson ; with contributions of Niranjan Kafle, Diwakar Acharya & others. Pondicherry, India : Institut Français de Pondichéry : Paris, France : École Française d'Extrême-Orient : Hamburg, Germany : Asien-Afrika-Institut, Universität Hamburg. -
- Pandya, B.P.,1978-79: "Some remarks on the title "Nandī-purāṇa", in Journal of the Oriental Institute Baroda , 28, 48-55.
- K. V. Rangaswami Aiyangar, 1941-42: "Nandipurāṇa", in New Indian Antiquary 4, 157-161.
- Rocher, Ludo, 1986. The Purāṇas. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassoiwitz. (A history of Indian Literature, Vol. 2, fasc. 3)
- (Ur-Skanda purāṇa). The Skandapurāṇa, critically ed. with prolegomena and English synopsis by R. Adriaensen … [et al.]. Groningen : Forsten, 1998 (vol. 1) -.
- Whitmore, Luke. In Pursuit of Maheshvara: Understanding Kedarnath as Place and as Tirtha. By Luke Whitmore, (B.A., Haverford College, 1995 M.T.S., Harvard Divinity School, 1999.) (Advisor: Laurie L. Patton, Ph.D.) An abstract of A dissertation submitted to the Faculty of the James T. Laney School of Graduate Studies of Emory University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Graduate Division of Religion West and South Asian Studies, 2010.